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Thread: ι αм ѕσи σf ѕαя∂αя!!

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    Exclamation ι αм ѕσи σf ѕαя∂αя!!




    нєу gυуѕ и gαℓѕ тнιѕ тняєα∂ ιѕ α тяιвυтє тσ ѕιкн 'ѕ αи∂ тнєяє ¢σитяιвυтισи тσωαя∂ѕ тнє ωσяℓ∂ ωєℓfαяє αи∂ тнєяє нєℓρfυℓ иαтυяє .

    ѕσ ι αм αвт тσ ѕтαят ιт иσω .. ι нσρє υ ℓιкє ιт






    @тнιѕ ιѕ ρυяєℓу му тяιвυтє ..

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    тнє fσℓℓσωιиg ѕσиg ιѕ α ρяєνιєω ωαт ιѕ ¢σмιиg ιи тнιѕ тняєα∂








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    On Vaisakhi (March 30th) 1666, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa Order; any person calling themselves a Sikh, would have to follow the path set down for them in the Khalsa. This universal brotherhood of humankind was created to destroy all previous barriers seperating fellow Sikhs such as Caste, Creed, Colour or Gender. Guru ji held a very large gathering & addressed them, "My devoted friends, this sword is daily clamouring for the head of a dear Sikh. Is there anyone among you all ready to lay down his life at a call frome me?." He stood firm, grasping a talwar (sword) in his hands. Many people fled, fearing for their lives, but 5 volunteers stood up, turn by turn, volunteering to put their lives in Guru ji's hands. First, Bhai Daya Ram, a Khatri form Lahore, then Bhai Dharm Das, a farmer from Delhi, then Bhai Mokham Chand, a washerman of Dwarka, Bhai Sahib Chand, a barber of Bidar & Bhai Himmat Rai, a water carrier of Jagannath. They were each one by one, beheaded by Guru ji. Guruji was headstrong & continued asking for more volunteers, until his sword had been stained with the blood of 5 loyal GurSikhs. Then, the Guru was satisfied and in a miracle, Guru ji brought forth the 5 volunteers, all now dressed in saffron clothes; orange salwar & kameez uniform, the same as Guru ji. Guru ji game them the title of 'Panj Pyarae' or '5 beloved ones' & were then asked recite the Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib, Anand Sahib, Swayas & Chaupai, while Guru ji stirred Pure water in an Iron vessel with a Khanda (double edged sword). The Khanda was used to represent Sovereign strength & Godly Truthfulness. The Iron vessel represented the strength of a pure heart. The hymns symbolised divine power & to provide a constant link between the Khalsa & God. Patashas (Sugar crystals) were then stirred in, brought in at the time by Mata Sahib Kaur, to bless the Khalsae 'with the grace, warmth & sweetness'. This Amrit, holy water, had thus been prepared & since it was created with the sword, was called, 'Khande ka Pahul'. Guru ji asked the Sikhs to kneel on their left knees, Guru ji then showered the Amrit into their eyes & asked them, in turn, to speak aloud, "Waheguru ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru ji ki Fatheh", 'the Khalsa belongs to the True Lord, the Victory belongs to the True Lord'. The Amrit was then sprinkled in their hair & they were all asked to take deep draughts of Amrit from the same vessel to bond them together as brothers, destroying distinctions.
    Guru Gobind Singh told his Khalsa;
    This my order, listen my beloved.
    Without Hair and Sword, do not come to me.
    Without the rehit, do not call yourself a Sikh.
    Without the rehit, you will be suffering.
    The first rehit should be taken as being the taking of Amrit.
    (All of the Rehits or codes of Conduct can be found in the Rehit Maryada section)
    Guru Gobind Singh sang Vaheguru's praises aloud;
    YOU are the sign of Victory,
    Today, YOU are the World-Warrior,
    YOU are Death
    YOU are All Power,
    YOU are the Sword and Arrow
    After serving Amrit to the Panj Pyarae or 5 beloved ones and baptising them into the Khalsa, he then took Baptism himself from the Panj Pyarae! Then, he gave them an authority; superior to his own! Such an event has never been observed in History when any Prophet has held his Baptees in a higher regard to his own, we record:
    Vah Vah Gobind Singh aapae Gur Chela
    Praise be to Gobind Singh, he is the Guru as well as the Servant (of the Khalsa) Guru Gobind Singh created this Khalsa, Akal Purkh i Fauj, blessed by Vaheguru, they served as Saint Soldiers (Sant Sipahi) of the world. The Khalsa served both to gain full Bhakhti & Spirituallity, but with full Shakhti; Physical martial being. After taking Amrit, the Surname 'Singh' was given to males, 'Kaur' to the females.
    The Khalsae were to follow the Rehit Maryada (go to Rehit Maryada section) as their code of conduct. The Panj Pyarae were renamed to Bhai Daya Singh Ji, Bhai Himmat Singh Ji, Bhai Mokham Singh Ji, Bhai Dharam Singh Ji & Bhai Sahib Singh Ji.They were given 5 kakkars or 5 religious symbols to be worn at all times, they include:
    Kess- Uncut Hair throughout body.
    Kirpan- The Kirpa-Aan is a shastar (dagger) used for Righteousness & self-defence as a last resort.
    Kanga- This is used to help preserve Hair in Good condition; clean & tidy.
    Kara- a bracelet to be worn on right hand, this is a symbol of God's oneness & a constant remider of Sikh values of Self control over the Mann (mind)
    Khaccha- Knee length shorts to remind beholder of Self-control & restraint from Kaam (lust)
    The Five Takhts were then installed as Sri Akal Takht Sahib, Sri Kes Garh Sahib, Sri Dam Damma Sahib, Sri Patna Sahib & Sri Hazoor Sahib.

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    Banda Singh Bahadur

    Baba Banda Singh Bahadur was the first Singh King who established Sikh rule in a large part of Punjab. Lachhman Das was his childhood name. He was born to Rajput parents. He wa very fond of hunting in his early life. One he hunted a she dear who was pregnant. The dying animal gave birth to two kids who also died along with their mother before the eyes of Lachhman Das.
    He was thoroughly shaken by the incident and ovecome with grief, he renounced the world and became a Bairagi Sadhu adopting first one Janki Das as his Guru, and later some others, but none of them being true Guru, could provide him peace of mind. He turned to tantric sadhus and acquired some miracle powers. With the help of these miracles powers he was able to recruit a number of persons as his agent disciples. Through them, he established his popularity among the simple minded people around his Ashram on the bank of river Godavri. None benefitted from his miracles. He rather used those miracles to sub due and humiliate religious leaders and other famous saints of the atea who ever happened to visit his Ashram. Guru Gobind Singh while travelling towards South India from North along with some Sikhs, visited Lachhman Das’s Ashram and in his absence, sat on his beautifully decorated cot.
    On his return to the Ashram, Lachhman Das could not tolerate Guru Gobind Singh occupying his seat. He along with his disciples tried all their tantric miracles to overturn the cot occupied by Guru Gobind Singh, in order to humiliate and punish him for his daring act but failed to cause any harm to the new unknown visitor. No trick worked on the Guru. He kept sitting on smilingly.

    Accepting defeat, Lachhman Das Bairagi fell at the feet of Guru Gobind Singh and asked forgiveness and said, “O, Guru Ji, I am your Banda (Slave)”. Show me light and put me on the right path. I am at your service and am prepared to do anything at your bidding.
    Guru Gobind Singh taught him the basic principles of sikh religion and administered Amrit to Lachhman Das, admitting him to Sikh fold. The Guru renamed him as Banda Singh. Guru Ji’s Amrit changed Lachhman Das’s life completely. He was no longer a wicked bairagi troubling humiliating innocent people, but was now a brave Sikh of the tenth Master.
    Guru Gobind Singh sent Banda Singh on a mission to Punjab to punish the guilty and cruel rulers of the time. He was provided with five brave Sikhs as advisors. He was also provided with necessay weapons.
    Fully armed and accompanied by brave Sikhs and Guru Ji’s blessing, banda Singh proceeded on his mission towards Punjab. With the help of Guru’s Hukumnamas (Orders) to Sikh community to help and join Banda Singh in his assigned mission, thousands of armed Sikhs joined him. The rulers of Punjab were already well aware of fighting qualities of the Sikhs and were thus terrified to face them.

    Within a short time, Sikh forces, under the leadership of brave Banda Singh, put to death many tyrant rulers, including Nazab Wazir Khan who was responsible for putting to death the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh in a most in human manner. Cruel rulers and their associates were singled out systematically, picked up and punished for their crimes against humanity.
    Banda Singh captured large part of Punjab and established sikh rule there. He minted coins in the name of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Guru Gobing Singh ji, In the meantime, Faruksaiyar became the Emperor at Delhi. He was angered by the defeat of Mughtal forces at the hands of Banda Singh everywhere. He sent a large force from Delhi and mobilised forces from eleswhere in Punjab to defeat and capture Baba Banda Singh.
    The Sikh forces were ultimately beseiged by overwhelming number of Mughal forces in the fortess of Gurdas Nangal. The Sikhs fought valiantly under the leadership of Baba Banda Singh inflicting heavy casualties on the Moghul army. However, due to prolonged encircling of the fortess by superior number of forces, the Sikh forces were left with no rations. They were forced to eat tree leaves to sustain themselves. Due to this, they became too weak to fight the enemy.
    Ultimately, the brave Sikh general Baba Banda Singh Bahadur was arrested along with seven hundred Sikh soldiers and brought to Delhi, where they were mounted on ponies, insulted and paraded in the Bazars of Delhi.
    The Sikhs were offered amnesty if they accepted conversion to Islam. Not one among them accepted this offer of lease of life. As such they were tortured and done to death publicly. They died in high spirits, sticking to their faith.
    Finally before Baba Banda Singh was butchered most mercilessly by the tyrant rulers, his four years old son was put ot death in front of Baba Banda Singh, by cutting open his abdomen. His heart was taken out and thrust into the mouth of Baba Banda Singh. But even this most inhuman and cruel act of tyrant rulers failed to break Baba Ji’s resolve and determination. He remained composed as ever. Finally, he was put to death most mercilessly by pinching the flesh from his body, bit by bit, by means of heated pincers.

    Thus came to an end and eventful chapter of Sikh History when the tyrant Moghul rulers tasted defeat after defeat for a number of years at the hand of Sikhs under the leadership of the first Sikh General Baba Banda Singh Bahadur. The Guru thus demonstrated to the people the true strength of mind and body of those who had partaken Amrit and how a Bairagi who was notorious and aimless, could turn out to be a brave person with credible achievements.

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    Shaheed Baba Deep Singh Ji
    (1682 to 1762)

    Baba Deep Singh was a great Sikh scholar who became a soldier and martyr for the defence of Sikhism. When he visited Anandpur Sahib in 1700, he became a Khalsa and decided to stay. There he learned Gurmukhi from Bhai Mani Singh along with horse riding, archery as well as other arms training. Baba Deep Singh met Guru Gobind Singh at Damdama Sahib where Guru Gobind Singh told him to start preaching the message of Sikhism. Between 1715 and 1728 Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh produced a number of hand written copies of the Guru Granth Sahib for distribution among the Sikhs. When Bhai Mani Singh became the head granthi at the Golden Temple, Baba Deep Singh stayed on as the head at Damdama Sahib. In 1710 Baba Deep Singh joined Banda Singh Bahadur in the battle of Sirhind. Baba Deep Singh was also a survivor of the Chotta Ghalughara (Small Holocaust) in 1755 when 10,000 Sikhs were killed. In 1762 Ahmed Shah Abdhali the Afghan invader ordered the Golden Temple blown up and the sacred pool filled in with refuse. Baba Deep Singh came out of scholarly retirement at Damdama Sahib and asked Sikhs to march with him to Amritsar to avenge the desecration. Along the way to Amritsar 5,000 Sikhs joined Baba Deep Singh. On the outskirts of Amritsar Baba Deep Singh and the heavily outnumbered Sikhs fought two fierce battles against a mughal force of 20,000. In the second engagement Baba Deep Singh was fatally wounded in the neck but had vowed to die in the precincts of the Golden Temple. Although mortally wounded Baba Deep Singh was able to continue fighting until he was able to make his way to the Sacred Pool of the Golden Temple where he finally expired.
    Shaheed Baba Deep Singh Ji is one of most honoured martyrs of Sikh history. His parents, Bhai Bhagtu Ji and Mata Jeonee Ji, lived in the village of Pahuwind, Amritsar, India. They were hard working Sikh farmers but had not been blessed with any children. A Sikh saint told them one day that they would have a special child whom they should name Deep (meaning one who gives light). Baba Deep Singh Ji was born to them on January 26, 1682 (14 Maagh Sunmat 1739). Since Deep was an only child, his parents raised him with much devotion and affection.
    At the age of twelve, Baba Deep Singh Ji went with his parents to Anandpur Sahib to meet Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the tenth Sikh guru. They stayed at Anandpur Sahib for several days, doing sewa (service) with the Sikh community. When his parents were ready to return to their village, Guru Gobind Singh Ji asked Baba Deep Singh Ji to stay with him. He humbly accepted Guru Ji's command and began serving him. While at Anandpur Sahib,
    Baba Deep Singh Ji learned about Sikh philosophy and Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy book of scriptures. He learned gurmukhi (Punjabi script) and several other languages. Guru Gobind Singh Ji also taught him horseback riding, hunting and arms training. At the age of eighteen, he received amrit (holy water) from Guru Ji on Vaisakhi. As a amritdhari Sikh, Baba Deep Singh Ji took an oath to serve as God's soldier--Sikhs are to always help the weak and needy, and to fight for truth and justice. Baba Deep Singh Ji soon became one of Guru Gobind Singh Ji's most beloved Sikhs.
    Baba Deep Singh Ji stayed in Guru Gobind Singh Ji's service for about eight years. At Guru Ji's request, he returned to his village to help his parents. A year after his return to Pahuwind, a Sikh messenger arrived from Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Baba Deep Singh Ji was told that Guru Ji had left his fort in Anandpur Sahib after fighting with the Hindu hill rajas for six months. He also learned that the Guru's four sons and his mother, Mata Gujri, had all become separated. Upon hearing such disheartening news, Baba Deep Singh Ji immediately left Pahuwind to meet Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
    Baba Deep Singh Ji met Guru Gobind Singh Ji again at Damdama Sahib in Talwandi. Here, he learned that two of the Guru' sons, Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh, had lost their lives in the battle of Chamkaur. Guru Ji also told him that his two younger sons, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh, were cruelly murdered at the city of Sirhind under the orders of the Muslim governor, Wazir Khan.
    Baba Deep Singh Ji had been summoned to Damdama Sahib to work with Bhai Mani Singh Ji to prepare the final text of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Gobind Singh Ji recited the entire Granth Sahib to them while they wrote the text. On its completion, Baba Deep Singh Ji hand wrote five more copies of the holy scriptures. Four copies were sent to Sri Akal Takht Sahib, Sri Takht Patna Sahib, Sri Takht Hazur Sahib, and Sri Takht Anandpur Sahib. Another copy was prepared by Baba Deep Singh Ji in Arabic script and sent to the Middle East.
    Baba Deep Singh Ji was soon regarded as one of the most devout Sikhs of his time. While preparing copies of Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Baba Deep Singh Ji questioned Bhai Mani Singh Ji about a line of gurbani: "mitar pyare nu hal fakeera da kahna". Baba Deep Singh Ji felt that the line had been stated incorrectly because the Guru could never be a fakeer (beggar). He felt that the line should have been stated as "mitar pyare nu hal mureedan da kahna". Bhai Mani Singh Ji warned Baba Deep Singh Ji that in order to make an alteration to gurbani, he would need to give a part of himself in return. Baba Deep Singh Ji agreed to this, declaring that he was prepared to give his head for the sake of the panth. Therefore, Baba Ji was given the title of "Shaheed" (martyr) while alive.
    In 1706, Guru Gobind Singh Ji placed Baba Deep Singh Ji in charge at Damdama Sahib, while Bhai Mani Singh Ji was made head priest of Harimander Sahib in Amritsar. Baba Deep Singh Ji spent many years at Damdama Sahib preaching Sikh values and teachings and doing service for the community. He was always ready to serve those in need and to fight for justice. Baba Ji also continued to write gutkas (books of hymns) and distributed them to the Sikh community.
    In 1707, Baba Deep Singh Ji joined Banda Singh Bahadur to fight for the freedom of Punjab. They fought together in the battle at Sirhind--the city in which Guru Gobind Singh Ji's younger sons had been killed. Although the Muslim army outnumbered the Sikhs significantly, the Sikh army was able to easily defeat the Muslim forces. During the battle, Baba Deep Singh Ji beheaded Wazir Khan. Later, when the Sikh forces were reorganised into twelve misls (groups), Baba Deep Singh Ji was appointed in charge of the Shaheedi division. As the leader of the Shaheedi misl, he achieved numerous victories for the Sikhs.
    In 1716, the Sikh community became divided into two separate groups. One group, known as the Bandahi Khalsa, believed that Banda Singh Bahadur is the last Sikh guru, while the other group, the Tatt Khalsa, believed that Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the guru. These two groups began to dispute over control of Sri Harimander Sahib. Baba Deep Singh Ji was asked to help in reaching an agreement between the two parties. After speaking to both sides, it was decided by Baba Deep Singh Ji and Bhai Mani Singh Ji that two slips of paper would be written with each group's name on it. The slips of paper would then be tossed into the sarovar (pool of holy water); whichever group's paper stayed afloat the longest would be allowed to stay at Sri Harimander Sahib while the other group would agree to leave. Both parties agreed to solution. Baba Deep Singh Ji did ardas (prayer) and let the slips float in the water. In a few minutes, one paper began to sink and soon disappeared beneath the water. The other slip, which remained afloat, was lifted out of the sarovar. The name on this slip was Tatt Khalsa--therefore, the Bandahi Khalsa were forced to leave Sri Harimander Sahib forever.
    In 1755, Ahmad Shah Abdali, the emperor of Afghanistan, attacked India for the fifth time. After looting many Indian cities including Delhi, he brought back with him gold, jewellery, and thousands of captured young women. When Baba Deep Singh Ji learned about this atrocity, he took a group of Sikhs and ambushed Ahmad Shah's forces. Baba Deep Singh Ji and his men freed much of Ahmad Shah's stolen goods and liberated the prisoners, returning them to their homes.
    Ahmad Shah Abdali was able to escape to Lahore. Angered by the attack from the Sikhs, he decided to destroy the Sikh community. He appointed his son, Tamur Shah, as the governor of Lahore, and made Jahan Khan his general. In order to destroy the source of the Sikh's spiritual strength, he ordered Jahan Khan to destroy Sri Harimander Sahib. Following orders, in 1757, Jahan Khan proceeded to Amritsar with heavy artillery. Many Sikhs died trying to defend Sri Harimander Sahib but unfortunately the gurdwara and its surrounding buildings were demolished and the sarovar was filled with dirt and debris. Sri Harimander Sahib was then closed to all Sikhs.



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    At this time, Baba Deep Singh Ji was at Damdama Sahib. When he learned about this disturbing news, he immediately declared his intention of expelling the Afghans and rebuilding the gurdwara. He took a vow not to come back alive without fulfilling this mission. Baba Deep Singh Ji did ardas while promising to get to Sri Harimander Sahib:
    "Sir jaave ta jaave, mera Sikhi sidhak na jaave" (If my head is severed, let it be, but don't severe my Sikh way of life)
    Although Baba Deep Singh Ji was seventy-five years old, he still had the strength of a young warrior. He gathered a large group of Sikhs and advanced towards Sir Harimander Sahib. By the time they reached the village of Tern Taran, about ten miles from Amritsar, their numbers had risen to about five thousand. At this time, Baba Ji drew a line on the ground with his khanda, and asked only those who were willing to fight and die to cross the line. All of the Sikhs there crossed the line eagerly. Baba Deep Singh Ji then recited the shabad:
    "Jo to praym khaylan ka chaao, sir dhar talee galee mayree aao." (Those who wish to play the game of love (follow Sikhism), come to me with your head in your palm.)
    "It maarag pair dhareejai, sir deejai kaan na keejai." (If you wish your feet to travel this path, don't delay in accepting to give your head.)
    When news of Baba Deep Singh Ji's intentions reached Jahan Khan, he immediately mobilised an army of 20,000 men and proceeded towards Tern Taran. Baba Deep Singh Ji's army intercepted Jahan Khan's forces near the village of Goharwal, about five miles from Amritsar. At this point, there was a clash between both sides. Baba Deep Singh Ji fought with his 18-ser khanda (weighing about 32 lbs.). Each Sikh fought with such great valour and courage that the enemy was almost defeated. During the midst of battle, a large army of reinforcements arrived for Jahan Khan's men, turning the odds against the Sikhs. Yet, the Sikhs with Baba Deep Singh Ji as their head continued fighting and advancing towards Amritsar.
    During the clash, one of the Mogul commanders, Jamal Khan, attacked Baba Deep Singh Ji. As they fought, both men swung their weapons with great force, leaving both of their heads separated from their bodies. After seeing this scene, a young Sikh warrior called out to Baba Ji, reminding him of his vow to reach Sri Harimander Sahib. Upon hearing this, Baba Deep Singh Ji immediately stood up, holding his head on his left palm while holding his khanda upright in his right hand. He then continued fighting and moving towards Sri Harimander Sahib. Upon seeing the sight of Baba Deep Singh Ji, most of the men in the Mogul army fled away in terror. Baba Deep Singh Ji was able to continue fighting and reached Sri Harimander Sahib. He bowed his head at the prikarma (rectangular walkway) of Sri Harimander Sahib and lay there as a martyr.
    Baba Deep Singh Ji's shaheedi incited the Sikhs to continue to fight against Mogul oppression for many years. Even today, his life serves as an example for all Sikhs on how to live and die with dignity.
    DamDami Taksal was created from the incidence, which occurred when the tenth master, Guru Gobind Singh was at Takht Sri Anandpur Sahib. At that time, a beloved priest was reciting the Panj Granth with sincerity. Whilst reciting the gurbani he made one continuous mistake in the Dachanee Onkar path. This was noticed by Bhai Daya Singh Ji, and other Sikh followers, who then approached the tenth master saying 'Oh great one, bestow your blessings upon your followers and teach us the way to read and understand the Gurbani without which we do not stand corrected.'
    When ever the beloved followers put a request forward to the Guru Ji he would never disregard the congregations wishes. Once free from the battles, proceeding after his sacrificed sons (4 Shahejade), who gave there lives away for there religion, Guru Ji went on to Talwandi and asked of the Singhs to 'go to Kartarpur Sahib to see Theer Mal. When the fifth master, Guru Arjan Dev Ji was reciting the gurbani, he left a space for where the Ninth Guru was to complete it. Whilst getting the Guru Granth Sahib Ji complete the translations shall be explained.'
    Shaheed Baba Deep Singh Ji went to see Teer Mal, and replied if Guru Gobind Singh Ji is so great why cannot he recite the gurbani off by heart. To make Teer Mal eat his words Guru Ji went to Takht Sri Dam Dama Sahib Sabho Ke Talwandi, to then recite the whole of the Guru Granth Sahib Ji with the aid of Bhai Mani Singh being the scriber. With so much swiftness at that very day the Jap Ji Sahib, reheraas Sahib and the Kirtan Sohila was concluded, and that very evening, it was all translated to the congregation. This began the process of writing, reading and translating of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, to the 48 followers and the congregation. The papers, pens and ink were supplied with great homage by Baba Deep Singh Ji. It took 9 months 9 days from 1762 until 1763 to complete the whole of the translation from Ik Onkar to Attarehi Das Bees. Where at the ending of the Guru Ji's teaching, a large ceremony took place which left the whole Sikh nation astonished by Guru seva.
    From hearing the translation from the Guru Ji (10th), the 48 followers gained devine knowledge (Brahm Giaan) which left them detached from all material status. Guru Ji gave permission to Bhai Manni Singh and Baba Deep Singh Ji to take forward this seva and teach others there learnings. Even if your body's are cut into pieces or your head is removed from your body, you will remain focused to your devine knowledge.
    Guru Ji sent Bhai Mani Singh to Amritsar and sent Baba Deep Singh Jee to Taksal Damdama Sahib to run The Taksal's teachings. Both Taksals have been running with the blessings of the divine knowledge of great saints (refer to historical tree) who have taught the Guru Jee preaching's one by one.


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    Maharaja Ranjit Singh: SHERE-PUNJAB

    Maharaja Ranjit Singh was born on 13th November 1780 at Gujranwala in Punjab. His father Sardar Mahan Singh was a Chieftain and a Warrior. At a young age, Maharaja Ranjit Singh became a Champion Swimmer, an Expert Horse-Rider and an Able Swordsman. He was greatly inspired by the fact that Guru Gobind Singh ji's two elder sons had fought the Mughals very bravely at the tender age of 14 and 17. Maharaja Ranjit Singh led his first war at the age of 11 years and defeated the army of the ruler of Gujrat. Later he fought two severe battles with the Afghans, with a smaller army and took over the city of Lahore. After decades of misrule by foreign invaders, the people of Lahore heaved a sigh of relief when the Maharaja assured the citizens of safety and good administration. Under Ranjit Singh's leadership, the various Sikh Chiefs were united and on Baisakhi day of 1801, they conferred the title of 'MAHARAJA OF THE PUNJAB" on him. Maharaja Ranjit Singh systematically extended the frontiers of Punjab and brought the regions around Amritsar, Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and Peshawar under his rule. He never became proud or arrogant despite all the victories won by him. He was a liberal ruler and did not bother about the colour, creed, caste or nationalities of his employees. He engaged a number of English, Italian, German, French and American Officers. They trained the Maharaja's Army and improved its organisation & efficiency. Maharaja Ranjit Singh's army was full of men from different faiths and nationalities, but there was no jealousy or bickering between them. His court was cosmopolitan - consisting of Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims, all of whom loved him dearly. He never sat on a throne nor did he wear a crown. He sat on a silver chair and dressed in a simple and sober manner. He ruled in a Democratic manner and never isolated himself from the masses. He was a very kind and generous ruler. He ruled in a truly Secular and just manner. He allowed equal rights for all communities in Punjab. He also encouraged development of educational institutions and industries by the different communities. The British signed a peace-treaty with Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1809, which they broke as soon as he died. Khalsa kingdom under Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the most peaceful time Punjabis had ever seen. This period of 40 years was Golden era of Punjab. Muslims, Hindus and Sikh reaffirmed their Punjabi roots. several schools were opened, especially Khalsa schools at Amritsar and Lahore run by Sikh academicians, which were open to all Punjabi population. Ranjit Singh did not allowed any British missionaries to open Christian schools although they were allowed to preach in Punjab. Other Sikh kingdoms of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Kapurthala and Faridkot, also accepted British Christian missionaries. Sikhs acted as a buffer between Hindus and Muslims in Punjab. Ranjit Singh through his foresight had brought peace and prosperity in Punjab. Punjabi Muslims who from centuries had looked westwards towards Afghanis and Persians and had been betrayed by them were now leading Punjabi armies of Sarkar Khalsa. Ranjit Singh's legacy was such that he created a secular kingdom with equality for all. In his lifetime, there were three groups of Individuals whom he had given power to pursue different matter of state.


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    Nice Share Rosy ............
    Love the Words
    Eco friendly, Nature ke Rakshak
    Mein bhi hun
    "Nature"

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    ANGLO-SIKH WAR 1, 1845-46

    partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom, as the outcome of British expansionism. It was near-anarchical conditions that overtook the Lahore court after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in June 1839. The English, by then firmly installed in Firozpur the Sikh frontier, about 70 km from Lahore, the Sikh capital, were watching the happenings across the border with more than neighbour's interest The disorder that prevailed there promised them a good opportunity for direct intervention.
    Up to 1838, the British troops on the Sikh frontier had amounted to one regiment at Sabathu in the hills and two at Ludhiana with six pieces of artillery, equalling in all about 2,500 men. The total rose to 8,000 during the time of Lord Auckland (1836 42) who increased the number of troops at Ludhiana and created a new military post at Firozpur, which was actually Past of Sikh kingdom's dominion south of the Sutlej. British preparations for a war with the Sikhs began seriously in 1843 when the new governor-general, Lord Ellenborough (1842-44), discussed with the Home government the possibilities of a military occupation of the Punjab. English and Indian infantry reinforcement began arriving at each of the frontier posts of Firozpur and Ludhiana. Cavalry and artillery regiments moved up to Ambala and Kasauli. Works were in the process of *****ion around the magazine at Firozpur, and the fort at Ludhiana began to he fortified. Plans for the construction of bridges over the rivers Markanda and Ghaggar were prepared, and a new road link to join Meerut and Ambala was taken in hand. Exclusive of the newly constructed cantonments of Kasauli and Shimla, Ellenborough had been able to collect a force of 11,639 men and 48 guns at Ambala, Ludhiana and Firozpur. Everywhere," wrote Lord Ellenborough, we are trying to get things in order and especially to strengthen and equip the artillery with which the fight will be."
    Seventy boats of thirty-five tons each, with the necessary equipments to bridge the Sutlej at any point, were under construction; fifty-six pontoons were on their way from Bombay for use in Sindh, and two steamers were being constructed to ply on the River Sutlej. in November 1845," he informed the Duke of Wellington, "the army will be equal to any operation. I should be sorry to have it called to the field sooner." In July 1844, Lord Ellenborough was replaced by Lord Hardinge (1844-48), a Peninsula veteran, as governor-general of India. Hardinge further accelerated the process of strengthening the Sutlej frontier for a war with the Sikhs. The affable Colonel Richmond was replaced by the abrasive and belligerent Major George Broadfoot as the political agent on the Punjab frontier. Lord Cough, the commander-in-chief, established his headquarters at Ambala. In October 1844, the British military force on the frontier was 17,000 infantry and 60 guns. Another 10,000 troops were to be ready by the end of November. Firozpur's garrison strength under the command of Sir John Littler was raised to 7,000; by January 1845, the total British force amounted to 20,000 men and 60 guns. We can collect," Hardinge reported to the Home government, 33,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry and 100 guns in six weeks." In March additional British and Indian regiments were quietly moved to Flrozpur, Ludhiana and Ambala. Field batteries of 9 pounders with horses or bullocks to draw them, and 24 additional pieces of heavy ordnance were on their way to the frontier. In addition, 600 elephants to draw the battering train of 24-pounder batteries had reached Agra, and 7,000 camels between Kanpur and the Sutlej were to move up in the summer to Firozpur, which was to be the concentration point for a forward offensive movement.
    Lord Hardinge, blamed unnecessarily by the Home government for inadequate military preparations for the first Sikh war, had, during the seventeen months between Ellen borough's departure and the commencement of hostilities with the Sikhs, increased the garrison strength at Ferozpur from 4,596 men and 12 guns to 10,472 men and 24 guns; at Ambala from 4,113 men and 24 guns to 12, 972 men and 32 guns; at Ludhiana from 3,030 men and 12 guns to 7,235 men and 12 guns, and at Meerut from 5,573 men and 18 guns to 9,844 men and 24 guns. The relevant strength of the advanced armies, including those at the hill stations of Sabathu and Kasauli, was raised from 24,000 men and 66 guns to 45,500 men and 98 guns. These figures are based on official British papers, particularly Hardinge's private correspondence on Punjab affairs with his predecessor, Lord Ellenborough. Thus Total number of British troops around Punjab were 86,023 men and 116 guns. In addition to the concentration of troops on the border, an elaborate supply depot was set up by the British at Basslan, near Raikot, in Ludhianz district. The Lahore Darbar's vamps or representatives and newswriters in the cis-Sutlej region sent alarming reports of these large-scale British military movements across the border. The Sikhs were deeply wrought upon by these war preparations, especially by Broadfoot's acts of hostility. The rapid march in November 1845 of the governor-general towards the frontier and a report of Sir Charles Napier's speech in the Delhi Gazette saying that the British were going to war with the Sikhs filled Lahore with rumours of invasion. The Sikh ranks, alerted to the danger of a British offensive, started their own preparations. Yet the army panches or regimental representatives, who had taken over the affairs of the Lahore forces into their own hands after the death of Wazir Jawahar Singh, were at this time maintaining, according to George Campbell, a British civilian employed in the cis-Sutlej territory, Memoirs of My Indian Career , "Wonderful order at Lahore.. and almost puritanical discipline in the military republic."
    However, the emergence of the army Panchayats as a new centre of power greatly perturbed the British authority who termed it as "unholy alliance between the republican army and the Darbar." In this process Sikh army had indeed been transformed. It had now assumed the role of the Khalsa. It worked through elected regimental commitees declaring that Guru Gobind Singh's ideal of the Sikh commonwealth had been revived, with the Sarbatt Khalsa or the Sikh as a whole assuming all executive, military and civil authority in the State. The British decried this as "the dangerous military democracy of the panchayat system," in which soldiers were in a state of success mutiny. " When the British agent made a referenece the Lahore Darbar about military preparations in the Punjab, it replied that there only defensive measures to counter the signs of the British. The Darbar, on other hand, asked for the return of the estimated at over seventeen lakh of the Lahore grandee Suchet Singh had left buried in Firozpur, the restoration of the village of Mauran granted by Maharaja Ranjit Singh to one of his generals Hukam Singh Malvai, but subsequently resumed by the ruler of Nabha with the active connivance of the British, and free passage of Punjabi armed constabulary - a right that had been acknowledged by the British on paper but more often than not in practice. The British government rejected the Darbar's claims and severed diplomatic relations with it. The armies under Hugh Gough and Lord Hardinge began proceeding towards Firozpur. To forestall their joining those at Firozpur, the Sikh army began to cross the Sutlej on 11 December near Harike Pattan into its own territory on the other side of the river. The crossing over the Sutlej by Sikhs was made a pretext by the British for opening hostilities and on 13 December Governor-General Lord Hardinge issued a proclamation announcing war on the Sikhs. The declaration charged the State of Lahore with violation of the treaty of friendship of 1809 and justified British preparations as merely precautionary measures for the protection of the Sutlej frontier. The British simultaneouly declared Sikh possessions on the left bank of the Sutlej forfeit
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    ANGLO-SIKH WAR II, 1848-49, which resulted in the abrogation of the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab, was virtually a campaign by the victors of the first Anglo-Sikh war (1945-46) and since then the de facto rulers of the State finally to overcome the resistance of some of the sardars who chafed at the defeat in the earlier war which, they believed, had been lost owing to the treachery on the part of the commanders at the top and not to any lack of fighting strength of the Sikh army. It marked also the fulfilment of the imperialist ambition of the new governor-general, Lord Dalhousie (1848-56), to carry forward the British flag up to the natural boundary of India on the north-west. According to the peace settlement of March 1846, at the end of Anglo-Sikh war I, the British force in Lahore was to be withdrawn at the end of the year, but a severer treaty was imposed on the Sikhs before the expiry of that date.
    Sir Henry Hardinge, the then governor-general, had his Agent, Frederick Currie, persuade the Lahore Darbar to request the British for the continuance of the troops in Lahore. According to the treaty, which was consequently signed at Bharoval on 16 December 1846, Henry Lawrence was appointed Resident with "full authority to direct and control all matters in every department of the State." A Council of Regency, consisting of the nominees of the Resident and headed by Tej Singh, was appointed. The power to make changes in its personnel vested in the Resident. Under another clause the British could maintain as many troops in the Punjab as they thought necessary for the preservation of peace and order. This treaty was to remain in operation until the minor Maharaja Duleep Singh attained the age of 16. By a proclamation issued in July 1847, the governor-general further enhanced the powers of the Resident. On 23 October 1847, Sir Henry Hardinge wrote to Henry Lawrence: "In all our measures taken during the minority we must bear in mind that by the treaty of Lahore, March 1846, the Punjab never was intended to be an independent State. By the clause I added the chief of the State can neither make war or peace, or exchange or sell an acre of territory or admit a European officer, or refuse us a thoroughfare through his territories, or, in fact, perform any act without our permission. In fact the native Prince is in fetters, and under our protection and must do our bidding."
    In the words of British historian John Clark Marshman, "an officer of the Company's artillery became, in fact, the successor to Ranjit Singh." The Sikhs resented this gradual liquidation of their authority in the Punjab. The new government at Lahore became totally unpopular. The abolition of tigers in the Jalandhar Doab and changes introduced in the system of land revenue and its collection angered the landed classes. Maharani Jind Kaur, who was described by Lord Dalhousie as the only woman it the Punjab with manly understanding and in whom the British Resident foresaw a rallying point for the well-wishers of the Sikh dynasty, was kept under close surveillance. Henry Lawrence laid down that she could not receive in audience more than five or six sardars in a month and that she remain in purdah like the ladies of the royal families of Nepal, Jodhpur and Jaipur.
    In January 1848, Henry Lawrence took leave of absence and travelled back home with Lord Hardinge, who had completed his term in India. The former was replaced by Frederick Currie and the latter by the Earl of Dalhousie. The new regime confronted a rebellion in the Sikh province of Multan, which it utilised as an excuse for the annexation of the Punjab. The British Resident at Lahore increased the levy payable by the Multan governor, Diwan Mul Raj , who, finding himself unable to comply, resigned his office. Frederick Currie appointed General Kahn Singh Man in his place and sent him to Multan along with two British officers P.A. Vans Agnew and William Anderson, to take charge from Mul Raj The party arrived at Multan on 18 April 1848, and the Diwan vacated the Fort and made over the keys to the representatives of the Lahore Darbar But his soldiers rebelled and the British officers were set upon in their camp and killed This was the beginning of the Multan outbreak.
    Some soldiers of the Lahore escort deserted their officers and joined Mul Raj's army. Currie received the news at Lahore on 21 April, but delayed action Lord Dalhousie allowed the Multan rebellion to spread for five months. The interval was utilized by the British further to provoke Sikh opinion. The Resident did his best to fan the flames of rebellion. Maharani Jind Kaur, then under detention in the Fort of Sheikupura, was exiled from the Punjab She was taken to Firozpur and thence to Banaras, in the British dominions. Her annual allowance, which according to the treaty of Bharoval had been fixed at one and a half lakh of rupees, was reduced to twelve thousand. Her jewellery worth fifty thousand of rupees was forfeited; so was her cash amounting to a lakh and a half. The humiliating treatment of the Maharani caused deep resentment among the people of the Punjab Even the Muslim ruler of Afghanistan, Amir Dost Muhammad, protested to the British, saying that such treatment is objectionable to all creeds."
    Meanwhile, Lieutenant Herbert Edwardes, the Resident's Assistant at Bannu, having heard of the Multan revolt, began raising levies from among the Pathan mercenaries, and after summoning Van Cortlandt, the local Lahore commander, marched on Multan and called upon the rebels to submit. Although the British Resident approved of Edwardes' conduct, Lord Dalhousie was furious at the audacity of a "subaltern of ficer" to invest Multan without any authority and offer terms to Mul Raj. He was severely reprimanded and ordered not to extend his operations any further. However, Edwardes was not discouraged and ignoring these orders, he crossed the Indus on 14 June; four days later, he inflicted a crushing defeat on Mul Raj's forces at Kineri. Edwarde's action turned Sikh national sentiment in favor of Mul Raj and there was restiveness among the troops. British forces began to be moved towards the frontier. The Lahore garrison was reinforced; likewise more regiments reached Ambala and Firozpur. By June 1848, an army had been assembled at the frontier - 11,740 men in the Bari Doab, 9,430 in the Jalandhar Doab; in all 21,170 men ready to go into action against Multan to quell what was no more than a local rising. Meanwhile, Captain James Abbott, the Resident's assistant at Hazara, suspecting that Sardar Chatar Singh Atarivala, the governor of the province, had been hatching a conspiracy to lead a general Sikh uprising against the British, charged him with treason and cut off all communication with him and marched against him the Muslim peasantry and tribal mercenaries.
    Captain Nicholson who conducted an enquiry into Abbott's allegations, exonerated Chatar Singh of the charge of treason, but offered him terms which amounted to his virtual dismissal and the confiscation of his jagirs. Chatar Singh rejected these. Abbott's treatment of Chatar Singh, a chief of eminence and position since Ranjit Singh's time and whose daughter was betrothed to the young Maharaja Duleep Singh, was humiliating. Chatar Singh's son Raja Sher Singh, who had steadfastly fought on the side of Herbert Edwardes against Diwan Mul Raj, was greatly exercised, and he joined hands with the Diwan's force on 14 September 1848.

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    a very nice thread rosy!

    thanks!
    LOOK.....What I can DO..!

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    Shaheed Udham Singh (1899-1940)





    Udham Singh, a revolutionary nationalist, was born Sher Singh on 26 December 1899, at Sunam, in the then princely state of Patiala. His father, Tahal Singh, was at that time working as a watchman on a railway crossing in the neighbouring village of Upall. Sher Singh lost his parents before he was seven years and was admitted along with his brother Mukta Singh to the Central Khalsa Orphanage at Amritsar on 24 October 1907. As both brothers were administered the Sikh initiatory rites at the Orphanage, they received new names, Sher Singh becoming Udham Singh and Mukta Singh Sadhu Singh. In 1917, Udham Singh's brother also died, leaving him alone in the world.



    Udham Singh left the Orphanage after passing the matriculation examination in 1918. He was present in the Jallianvala Bag on the fateful Baisakhi day, 13 April 1919, when a peaceful assembly of people was fired upon by General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, killing over one thousand people. The event which Udham Singh used to recall with anger and sorrow, turned him to the path of revolution. Soon after, he left India and went to the United States of America. He felt thrilled to learn about the militant activities of the Babar Akalis in the early 1920's, and returned home. He had secretly brought with him some revolvers and was arrested by the police in Amritsar, and sentenced to four years imprisonment under the Arms Act. On release in 1931, he returned to his native Sunam, but harassed by the local police, he once again returned to Amritsar and opened a shop as a signboard painter, assuming the name of Ram Muhammad Singh Azad. This name, which he was to use later in England, was adopted to emphasize the unity of all the religious communities in India in their struggle for political freedom.


    Udham Singh was deeply influenced by the activities of Bhagat Singh and his revolutionary group. In 1935, when he was on a visit to Kashmlr, he was found carrying Bhagat Singh's portrait. He invariably referred to him as his guru. He loved to sing political songs, and was very fond of Ram Prasad Bismal, who was the leading poet of the revolutionaries. After staying for some months in Kashmlr, Udham Singh left India. He wandered about the continent for some time, and reached England by the mid-thirties. He was on the lookout for an opportunity to avenge the Jalliavala Bagh tragedy. The long-waited moment at last came on 13 March 1940. On that day, at 4.30 p.m. in the Caxton Hall, London, where a meeting of the East India Association was being held in conjunction with the Royal Central Asian Society, Udham Singh fired five to six shots from his pistol at Sir Michael O'Dwyer, who was governor of the Punjab when the Amritsar massacre had taken place. O'Dwyer was hit twice and fell to the ground dead and Lord Zetland, the Secretary of State for India, who was presiding over the meeting was injured. Udham Singh was overpowered with a smoking revolver. He in fact made no attempt to escape and continued saying that he had done his duty by his country.


    On 1 April 1940, Udham Singh was formally charged with the murder of Sir Michael O'Dwyer. On 4 June 1940, he was committed to trial, at the Central Criminal Court, Old Bailey, before Justice Atkinson, who sentenced him to death. An appeal was filed on his behalf which was dismissed on 15 July 1940. On 31 July 1940, Udham Singh was hanged in Pentonville Prison in London.

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    Kartar Singh SarabhaKartar Singh Sarabha(1896 - 1915)

    Kartar Singh Sarabha, a Ghadr revolutionary was born in 1886 in the village of Sarabha, in Ludhiana district of the Punjab in the house of Mangal Singh, a well-to-do farmer (Jutt). After receiving his primary education in his own village, Kartar Singh entered the Malwa Khalsa High school at Ludhiana for his matriculation. He was in tenth class when he went to live with his uncle in Orissa where, after finishing high school, he joined college. In 1912, when he was barely 16 years old he sailed for San Francisco (U.S.A), and joined the University of California at Berkeley, enrolling for a degree in chemistry. His association with Nalanda club of Indian students at Berkeley aroused his patriotic sentiments and he felt agitated about the treatment immigrants from India, especially manual, worker received in the United States.
    When the Ghadr party was founded in mid-1913 with Sohan Singh, a Sikh peasent from Bhakna village in Amritsar district, as president and Hardyal as secretary, Kartar Singh stopped his university work, moved in with Har Dyal and became his helpmate in running the revolutionary newspaper Ghadr (revolt). He undertook the responsibility for printing of the Gurmukhi edition of the paper. He composed patriotic poetry for it and wrote articles. He also went out among the Sikh farmers and arranged meetings at whch he and other Ghadr leaders made speeches urging them to united action against British. At a meeting at Sacremento, California, on 31 October 1913, he jumpedd to the stage and began to sing: "chalo chaliye desh nu Yuddha karen, eho aakhiri vachan te farman ho gaye" (come! let us go and join the battle of freedom; the final call has come, let us go!" Kartar Singh was one of the first to follow his own call.
    As World was I broke out, members of Ghadr party were openly exhorted to return to India to make armed revolt against the British. Kartar singh left the united states on 15 September 1914, nearly a month ahead of the main body of Sikhs who were to follow. He returned to India via Colombo, resolved to set up in his village a centre on the model of Ghadr party's yugantar Ashram in San Francisco. When Bhai Parmanand arrived in India in December 1914 to lead the movement, kartar singh was charged with spreading the network in Ludhiana district. In this connection he went to Bengal to secure weapons, and made contacts with revolutionaries such as Visnu Ganesh Pingley, Sachindra Nath Sanyal and Rash Bihari Bose. With Pingley, Kartar Singh visited cantonments at Meerut, Agra, Benaras, Allahabad, Ambala, Lahore and Rawalpind, with a view to inciting soldiers to revolt. As far as armaments, Kartar Singh and his associates succeeded in manufacturing bombs on a small scale at Jhabeval and later at Lohtbaddi, both in Ludhiana district, Kartar Singh organized and participated in raids on the villages of Sahneval and Mansuran in January 1915, in order to procure funds for the party.
    In February 1915, just before the planned revolt was to erupt, there was a massive roundup of the Ghadr leaders, following the disclosures made by a police informer, Kirpal, who had surreptiously gained admittance into the party. Kartar Singh, Jagat Singh of Sursingh, and Harnam Singh Tundilat escaped to Kabul. All three however came back to Punjab to continue their work. The were seized on 2 March 1915 at Wilsonpur, in Shahpur district, where they had gone to incite the troops of the 22nd Cavalry.
    The trial of arrested leaders in the Lahore conspiracy cases of 1915-1916 highlighted the role of Kartar Singh Sarabha in the movement. His defense ws just one eloquent statement of his revolutionary creed. He was sentenced to death on 13 September 1915 and he received the hangman's noose on 16 November 1915 singh his favourite patriotic song. A statue of Kartar Singh, *****ed n the city of Ludhiana commemorates his legendary heroism. He has also been immortalized in the fictional account Ikk Mian Do Talwaran by the famous Punjabi novelist, Nanak Singh.

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    Simply Fantastic.....Keep on adding bro....

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    Sikh's are very patriotic ..

    i respect them for their contribution towards our indian army and freedom struggle ..

    Singhs are Kings !!

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