Some key dates in India's struggle for Independence...
1857: The first Indian war of Independence.
India's First War of Independence, termed Sepoy Riots by the British was an attempt to unite India against the invading British and to restore power to the Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah. The resistance disintegrated primarily due to lack of leadership and unity on the part of Indians, as also to cruel suppression by the British Army. It was a remarkable event in Indian history and marked the end of the Mogul empire and sealed India's fate as a British colony for the next hundred years.
1885: Indian National Congress is formed by Allen Octavian Hume.
Subsequent to the Sepy Mutiny(1857), some Englishmen in India felt that a harmony between the ruling English and the Indian people has to be built and Sir Allen Octavian Hume founded the Indian National Union which gave way to the Indian National Congress (INC). Titans such as Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gandhiji and Subhas Chandra Bose served on its presidency. The Congress(I) as it is known today in India, remains as a very important political force and is currently leading the government.
1915: Home Rule League is founded by Annie Besant.
1919 : Khilafat Movement, Jalianwala Bagh Massacre, The Rowlat Act
April 13, 1919 - At the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar, Punjab, British and Gurkha troops massacre 379 Sikhs.
1920: Non-cooperation movement launched.
1921/1922: Chauri-Chaura violence due to Civil Disobedience Movement.
Feb 4, 1922: The Chauri Chaura incident occurs, where a mob of about 3000 kills some policemen. With the Non-cooperation movement (NCM) taking an increasingly violent form, this is the last straw to Mahatma Gandhi’s sense of discipline. He immediately calls for suspension of the NCM, to the horror of many Congress activists.
1928: Murder of Lala Lajpat Rai and subsequent revolutionary activities.
Dec 1929: The Indian National Congress declares 26 January 1930 as Independence Day, or the day for Poorna Swaraj (Complete Independence).
1930 : The Dandi Salt March, The Simon Commission, First Round Table Conference.
April 5, 1930: In an act of civil disobedience, Mahatma Gandhi breaks British law after marching to the sea and making salt.
1931: Second Round Table Conference, Gandhi-Irvin Pact, Revolution leader Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev are hanged by the Birtish government on March 23.
1937: Provincial Autonomy Begins with Congress winning power in many states. WWII breaks out and there is political deadlock in India
1942: The Quit India Movement, Rise of Subhas Chandra Bose.
Quit India resolution was passed by the Bombay session of the AICC, which led to the start of a historical civil disobedience movement across India.
Bose was another important leader of the Indian Independence movement, besides Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi. He was the president of the Indian National Congress in 1937 and 1939, and founded a nationalist force called the Indian National Army (INA).
1946: INA men tried. Muslim League Adamant about Pakistan.
1947: India is partitioned and Pakistan is formed. British Leave India - Freedom at Midnight. Jawahar Lal Nehru is India’s first prime minister.