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Thread: The Legend Of Music

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    Default The Legend Of Music

    bharat ratna smt:ms subbalakshmi---the carnatic music legend
    There isn't a music fan alive who has not heard of the legend M.S.Subbulakshmi. Madurai Shanmukhavadivu Subbulakshmi, known as MS, as she is an icon of the Carnatic Music of India, international celebrity, charismatic person and a charming lady of incredible humility.

    She was born in Madurai, Tamil Nadu on September 16, 1916 to a noted veena player Shanmukhavadivu and Subramania Iyer. Young Kunchamma as she was called and her siblings were brought up in an environment filled with music, her home being close to the Madurai Meenakshi Temple. Her grandmother Akkammal was a violinist. Her mother used to play and rehearse constantly and Kunchamma used to listen to her and hum ragas along during the veena and the nadaswaram recitals frequently heard from the temple. Her first Guru was Madurai Srinivasa Iyengar but her lessons did not last long. Her guru passed away soon after she learnt her foundations. But she kept practising on her own for long hours. She had formal schooling only till Class 5 and thereafter music became her entire world. Subbalakshmi's perfect pitch, whether high or low and fantastic range of her voice was the result of her dedication, and the hours of continuous practice she had. As a child, when she practised she would stop playing the tambura in between to check if she was maintaining her pitch with and without the instrument. She also learned Hindustani music from Pandit Narayan Rao Vyas for a short while. In the 1930s she learned khayals and thumris from Dwijenderlal Roy in Calcutta and later from Siddheshwari Devi of Banaras and bhajans and Rabindra Sangeet from Dilip Kumar Roy, she incorporated bhajans in almost all her concerts.

    Kunchamma accompanied her mother to the local concerts and later gave solo performances. She became known as the child prodigy of Madurai. She gave her first recital at the age of 10. She was asked to sing at the wedding of a Sourashtra friend in Madurai. Her first recording was also at the same age, when she recorded a couple of songs Marakat Vadivu and Oothukuzhiyinile in an impossibly high pitch for HMV in Madras. In 1934, in her debut at the Madras Music Academy she was noticed and applauded by top rank musicians like Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavathar, Tiger Varadachariar, Karaikudi Sambavisa Iyer and others.

    In 1940 she married Thiagaraja Sadasivam, a well known figure in the Madras Congress party, at Thiruneermalai. They had met four years earlier and with his connections in the journalistic and political world, he became instrumental in the continued success of her already flourishing career. From 1938 she began to act in films. This lasted for a short period of 6 years. Her films were quite successful but later in 1944 after her big hit Meera produced by her husband and released in Tamil and Hindi. Therafter she quit films and concentrated solely on music. From a South Indian celebrity she went on to become a national and an international figure. Internationally she has given concerts almost all over the world. She performed at the Edinburgh festival and at the United Nations in 1970, at the Carnegie Hall and at the inaugural concert of the Festival of India in London in 1982.

    Subbalakshmi has been the recipient of the some of the highest awards and honours the nation could bestow upon an artist and she has had significant international recognition as well. She earned doctorates from famed universities and her melodious voice has earned acclaim from famous personalities like Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Jawarharlal Nehru, Maharana of Udaipur and many others. High ranking musicians both Carnatic and Hindustani in the country have applauded her achievements. In 1998, she became the first musician to receive the highest Indian civilian award, the Bharat Ratna from the President of India. She received the Padma Bhushan in 1954, the Padma Vibhushan 1975, and the Ramon Magsaysay Award in 1974. These are some of the major awards she has received.

    The fame and adoration of thousands of her fans have left Subbalakhsmi untouched. She remained the simple, devout and humble person she always was and having a genuine interest in others. She passed away in 2004.
    Last edited by bssusi; 22-11-2006 at 09:10 PM.

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    Default Chembai

    Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar, 1972
    Background information
    Birth name Vaidyanathan
    Born September 1, 1895
    Chembai, Palghat, India
    Died October 16, 1974
    Ottapalam, Palghat, India
    Genre(s) Carnatic Music
    Occupation(s) Singer
    Years active 1904–1974
    Label(s) HMV, Inreco, BMG, Vani Cassettes
    Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar (Malayalam ?????? ???????? ?????????) was an Indian Carnatic music singer from the state of Kerala. Popularly known by his village name Chembai, or simply as Bhagavatar, he was born to Anantha Bhagavatar and Parvati Ammal in 1895[1]. Chembai was noted for his powerful voice and majestic style[2] of singing. His first public performance was in 1904, when he was nine. He was a recipient of several titles and honours in his long career of 70 years[3]. His encouragement of youngsters in performing arts is well known, as was his ability to spot new talent.[1] He was responsible for popularizing compositions like Rakshamam, Pavana Guru, Vathapi Ganapathim, Ksheera Sagara, Raghuvara, among others.[4] Noted music critic 'Aeolus' describes him as "the musician who has meant the most to Carnatic Music in the first fifty years of the 20th century"[5] Some of his disciples who gained popularity include Yesudas, T.V.Gopalakrishnan, V.V.Subramaniam, P.Leela, among others.[6] Memorial music festivals are held in his honour annually since his death in 1974.
    Last edited by bssusi; 22-11-2006 at 10:01 PM.

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    Default the honours received by chembai the great carnatic singer

    Honours from Mysore Maharaja (1937)
    Chembai visited Mysore at the invitation of Krishnarajendra Wodeyar, its then Maharaja, and gave a command performance there. But he declined another invitation that followed, to serve as an asthana vidwan of the Mysore Royal Court, since he felt he would not be able to stay in Mysore for the entire duration of Navaratri since he was conducting an annual Navaratri music festival in his own village (Chembai). Far from being offended, the Maharaja appreciated his sense of priorities, and rewarded him for his sincerety.[1]

    Gayana Gandharva (1940)
    His popular recognition found further expression in 1940 when his old friend T.D.Narayana lyer, about to retire as a senior postal official, arranged a function to raise funds for the War effort and for activities promoting the welfare of the employees of the postal department. He decided to invite Chembai to give a performance on the occasion and to honour the Bhagavatar. Harikesanallur Muthiah Bhagavatar presided over the function, of which the highlight was the awarding of the title of Gayana Gandharva ("musician among musicians") to Chembai.[1]

    Sangeetha Kalanidhi (1951)

    Main article: Sangeetha Kalanidhi
    The recognition most coveted by Carnatic musicians, is the invitation to preside over the annual conference of the Music Academy of Madras. The title of Sangeetha Kalanidhi goes to the person presiding over the conference.

    Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar received the invitation and the title in 1951.[1] In his presidential address, he said:
    “Music has an individual, innate beauty, different from other fine arts. Originating in the air, it dissolves into the air, giving 'Nirgunabrahmam' - which fills all space - the form of 'Nada brahmam'. Practice of music is, therefore, worship of `Nirgunabrahmam', and sangita is a yoga by itself. ... I have no doubt that the art and practice of Carnatic music will flourish and grow with good cooperation between vidwans and rasikas.[14]”

    Chembai StampSangeet Natak Akademi Award (1958)
    Chembai received the 'Sangeet Natak Akademi Award' in 1958, from the President of India Dr. S.Radhakrishnan, at Delhi before an invited audience of eminent Hindustani and Carnatic musicians and rasikas. This was a national recognition for his fame. He had come to be called the Bade Ghulam Ali Khan of South India.[15]

    Suvarna Mudra
    The Suvarna Mudra (gold medal) was awarded by Kerala Kalamandalam (an well-known institution of arts) to Chembai in recognition of his fame as the best known Indian musician from Kerala. His eminence is guaged by the fact that he had remained the first and only recipient of this honour.[16]

    Padma Bhushan (1973)
    The Padma Bhushan is a national award bestowed by the President of India on select musicians and other eminent people. Chembai was selected to receive the award in 1973 from the then president V. V. Giri. He was one of its early awardees in the field of music.[3]

    Honours from other princely states
    Honours were also bestowed on him by the rulers of Cochin, Baroda, Vijayanagaram, Bobbili and Jaipur.[10]

    Stamp Release (1996)
    The Department of Posts, Govt of India has released a special issue stamp on Chembai's birth centenary year (1996) as a national recognition in his honour.[17]

    Chembai Memorial Govt. Music College
    The Kerala Govt named a music college after Chembai to honour him. This college celebrates its golden jubilee in 2007.[6]

    He performed his last concert on 16 October 1974, at a temple in Ottapalam, which had been the venue of his first concert. He had finished his concert with his favourite song "Karunai Cheivan Endu Thamasam Krishna" (Why is there so much delay in conferring your bliss, Krishna?) and passed away shortly thereafter. Even after his demise, Chembai continues to inspire many musicians who participate in his memorial concerts.[18]

    Music Festivals
    At Chembai village
    Chembai had been conducting a music festival in his native village right from 1924 onwards. This is now continued by his disciples and others in his memory. The concerts are called Chembai Smaraka Concerts and held annually in February-March in the same village.

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    K. S. Chithra is a singer who has made her mark in the Indian (film) playback industry. Known as the “Nightingale of South India”, she has lent her voice to Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Oriya, Hindi and Bengali films.

    Professional career
    Born on July 27, 1963, in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), into a family of musicians, Chithra’s talent was recognized and nurtured from an early age by her father, the late Krishnan Nair. He was also her first guru (teacher). Chithra received her extensive training in Carnatic music from Dr. K.Omanakutty, after she was selected for the National Talent Search Scholarship from the Central Government from 1978 – 1984. She was introduced to Malayalam playback singing by Shri. M.G.Radhakrishnan in 1979. She made her debut in the Tamil film industry in Chennai under the guidance of film music composer Ilayaraaja. Lata Mangeshkar believes that Chithra is the best (next to herself). Even many Hindi music directors believe that Chithra is on par with Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle. She has worked with music directors such as Gulzar, Ustad Ali, Ghulam Ali, Anu Malik, and A.R. Rahman.

    To this day, Chithra has recorded more than 15,000 film songs in different languages and about 4000 non-film songs. During her career, numerous recognitions have come her way including six National Awards for best female playback singer. This is the largest number of national awards awarded to any female playback singer. She has won the awards for the following films:

    1986 - Sindhu Bhairavi, Tamil film
    1987 - Nakhaksthangal, Malayalam film
    1989 - Vaisali, Malayalam film
    1996 - Minsaara Kanavu, Tamil film
    1997 - Virasat, Hindi film
    2004 - Autograph, Tamil Film
    She has also received 14 awards for the best female playback singer from Kerala State Government, six awards from Andhra State Government, four awards from Tamil Nadu State Government and two awards from Karnataka State Government. She holds the unique honour of the first male or female playback singer to be recognised by all the four state governments in South India as the best playback singer.

    Other achievements
    Chithra was also recognized with the Kalaimamani title from Tamil Nadu Government in 1997, the K. J. Yesudas Lifetime Achievement Award in 2004, Kalaiselvam title from the South Indian Nadigar Sangam in 2002, and the Lifetime Achievement Award from Global Malayalee Council in London in 2003. She has also received numerous mainstream awards like MTV Video Music Award, Screen – Videocon Award, Film Fans Association Awards, and Cinema Express Awards. She has in her credit, private albums in Hindi namely Piya Basanthi and Sunset Point. Her first ghazal album with Masterio Ghulam Ali and Asha Bhosle is ready for release. She recently released an album in dedication to Smt. Subbulakshmi named My Tribute. It is a collection of kirthis and bhajans dedicated to Subbulakshmi. Sony is planning to release a solo album soon owing to success of Piya Basanthi. Recognising her contribution to the music world, Smt. Chithra has been conferred the prestigious Padmashri title by the Government of India.

    Stage performance
    Chithra has performed all over India, Middle East, Singapore, Malaysia, UK, France, U.S.A., Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka, Western European Countries like Germany, Switzerland, Norway and Denmark..

    Chithra, who is a Grade A artiste of All India Radio and Doordarshan, has established her own recording label - Audiotracs, to promote new talents in the music world by giving them opportunities to collaborate with her as singers, lyricists and music directors.

    Last edited by bssusi; 22-11-2006 at 11:35 PM.

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    Kattassery Joseph Yesudas (or usually referred to as Dr. K. J. Yesudas or in the alternate, Jesudas, Malayalam: ??????????? ????? ???????? ) (born January 10, 1940) is an eminent Indian classical musician and leading playback singer for film songs in many Indian languages.

    Background and Career

    Album cover of 'Gurusmarana' Vol1 - Live concert of Chembai and YesudasYesudas (the word literally means Follower of Jesus in Malayalam) was born in Fort Kochi, Kerala to Augustine Joseph and Elizabeth Joseph. His father, who was his first guru (teacher), was a well-known Malayalam classical musician and stage actor of his time. He joined the Music Academy in Thrippunithura and won a gold medal for music at a local competition in Fort Kochi at age seven. He later trained under the Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar who was one of the senior most performers of the time in Classical Music, and this training, abruptly cut short by the guru's demise in 1974, still stood him in good stead. His soul-stirring voice lends itself well to both Indian classical, devotional and popular songs. Some popular classical songs rendered by Yesudas are Vathapi Ganapathim, Krishna Nee Begane Baaro , 'Enthaveduko', 'Ksheera Saagara'.

    In playback singing Yesudas, a talent discovered by Salil Chowdhury and nurtured by Ravindra Jain, has sung more than 40,000 songs for many languages including Hindi, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Bengali, Malayalam, Gujarati, Oriya, Marathi, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tulu, Russian, Arabic, Latin and English through his long career.

    In 1965, he was invited by the Soviet Union government to perform at music concerts in various cities in the U.S.S.R. In 1970 he was nominated to head the Sangeetha Nataka Academy of Kerala, he was the youngest person ever to occupy the office. In 1971, Yesudas with his musical troupe travelled around Kerala to raise funds for the Indian Prime Minister's National Defense Fund during the Indo-Pakistani War. He also became Senate member in the International Parliament for Safety and Peace, an organization incorporated in the USA.

    On November 14, 1999, Yesudas was presented an honorary award by UNESCO for "Outstanding Achievements in Music and Peace" at the "Music for Peace" event in Paris, a concert held to mark the dawn of the new millennium and whose attendees included artistes such as Lionel Richie, Ray Charles, Montserrat Caballé and Zubin Mehta. He also dons the role of cultural ambassador of India through his numerable performances abroad, promoting Indian Music.Yesudas has, till date, performed in almost all the major cities of the world.

    He is the only one singer who has the title Asthana Gayakan (Official singer) of Kerala State.He was awarded the Padmashree (1973) and Padma Bhushan (2002) by the President of India.

    Completed the Ganabooshanam course at R.L.V. Music Academy, Thripunithura, Cochin
    Graduated from the Sree Swathithirunal Music Academy, Trivandrum
    Trained under well-known musicians like K.R.Kumaraswamy ( former principal of the Music College, Kochi ), Kunjuvelan Aasan ( a disciple of Nagaswera Vidwan Rajaratnam Pillai ), Augstune Joseph, Ramakutti Bagavathar, Sivaraman Nayar and Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar.

    Role models
    Shri Narayana Guru's great message, "One caste, one religion and one God for all humans", influenced young Yesudas in his dealings with fellow men. In the music world, Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavathar, Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna and Mohammed Rafi are his major heroes.

    Works In Malayalam

    Gaana Gandharavan YesudasPadmabhushan K. J. Yesudas has been singing many unforgettable songs in Malayalam .His first song as a playback singer was for the Malayalam movie Kalpadukal. (1961).

    In 60s -70s he made hit songs with music maestro M. S. Baburaj, G. Devarajan, Dakshinamurthy, and Salil Chowdhury. The trio combination of Salil-Yesudas and Prem Nazir (the evergreen hero of Malayalam Cinema) took the Malayalam Cinema Industry of the 70's by storm. As a matter of fact, it was generally agreed that Yesudas's voice was the most ideal one for Prem Nazir.

    Legendary songs with Baburaj are : Thamasamenthe varuvan - Bhargavi Nilayam (1964), Nadhikalil- Anaarkali (1966), Innale Mayangumbol - Anveshichu Kandethiyilla (1967), Akkareyanente Tamasam - Karthika (1968), Pranasaki –Pareeksha 1969, Orupushpam - Pareeksha 1969.

    Legendary songs with Maestro Dakshinamurthy are Swapnangale Ningal - Kavyamela (1965), Kakkathamburatti - Inapravukal (1965), Hrudaya Sarassile - Paadunna Puzha (1968), Ponveyil - Nirthasala (1972).

    Legendary songs with Devarajan Master are :Ashtamudi- Manavatty (1964), Manikya Veena- Kattu Pookkal (1965), Kattadichu - Thulabharam (1968), Thanga Bhasma- Koottukudumbam (1969), Aayiram Padasaram- Nadi (1969), Sangamam - Triveni (1970), Omalale Kandu- Sindhoora Cheppu (1971), Manushyan- Achanum Bappayum (1972), Indravallari - Gandharava Kshetram (1972), Padmatheerthame- Gayathri (1973).

    Legendary songs with Salil Chowdhury. are Neela Ponmane- Nellu (1974), Kalakalam- Ee Ganam Marakkumo (1978), Madaprave Vaa- Madhanotsavam (1978), Shyama Meghame - Samayamayilla Polum (1978).

    From 80 s his hit songs are with Maestro Raveendran, M G Radhakrishnan, Jerry Amaldev and Johnson. Yesudas made a lot of hit songs with the legendary Raveendran master. Ezhuswarangalum- Chiriyo chiri (1982), Pramadavam – His Highness Abdullah are legendary songs. Devanganagal Kayyozhinja tharakam from the film Njan Gandharvan (1991) is a legendary song by. Johnson.

    Works In Tamil

    Enthen NenjilHe has been singing thousands of songs in Tamil.Yesudas's first song in Tamil film was in the film Bommai and the song was Neeyum Bommai. The song VizhiyE kadhai ezhuthu composed by M. S. Viswanathan in M.G.R. Hit Urimai Kural (1974) was his early successfull song Tamil. Other songs with M. S. Viswanathan are Malarae kurinji malarae(Dr. Siva (1975)), Ennai vittal yArumillai-Naalai Namadhe(1975), Veenai pesum adhu meettum viralgalai kandu (Vazhvu En Pakkam (1976)), Thaane thanakkul sirikkindraal (perum pugazhum (1976)), Chendu malli poo pol azhagiya pandhu(Idhaya malar (1976)), Idhu irava pagalaa(Neela malargal 1979 ), Thirumaalin thirumarbil sreedevi mugamae(Thrishoolam), Kaanchi Pattuduththi , Vayasu Ponnu (1978).With music composer Ilaiyaraja he made lot of hit songs. Other major music directors worked with him are A. R. Rahman, Rajkumar S.A., S. Balachander, Vaidyanathan L., Deva,Gangai Amaran, Aadithyan, K. V. Mahadevan, Shankar Ganesh and Vidyasagar.

    He had fortune to sing songs written by Subramanya Bharathy (Yezhavuthu Manithan (1981)) and Bharati (2000)) and Kannadasan.The Magical voice that hooks all music lovers with melodies like 'Poove Sempoove' - Solla Thudikkuthu manasu, 'Aarariraro' - Raam, 'Raaja Raaja Chozan' - Rettai Vaal Kuruvi, Thendral Vanthu' - Thendrale Ennai Thodu, 'Kanne Kalaimaane' & 'Poongaatru' - Moondram Pirai, 'Vaa Vaa Anbe' - Agni Natchathiram , 'Vellai Puraa' - Pudhu Kavithai and lot of many other songs. He was awarded Kalaimamani Award and eight time State Award for the best playback singer from Tamil Nadu Government. He focuses on classical music rather than Tamil film music at present.

    Last edited by bssusi; 22-11-2006 at 10:28 PM.

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    yesudas work in hindi n other languages

    Sitaron Mein Tu HiYesudas's first Hindi song was for the movie Anand Mahal(1977) but first released song was in the film Choti Si Baath , with music scored by Salil Chowdhury, a long-standing collaborator. His most popular Hindi songs are from the 1976 movie Chitchor with music given by Ravindra Jain. The greatest tribute paid to him is cited during an interview with Ravindra Jain, wherein the blind music director confessed that if he ever happened to regain vision, the first person he would like to see was Yesudas. Yesudas's greatest association in Hindi was with Ravindra Jain and the duo combined to produce memorable including Oo Goriya re (from the film Naiyya - directed by Prashanth Nanda),Sunayna (from the film Sunayna). The film in which Yesudas sang the most memorable Hindi songs is claimed to be Saawan ko aane do with music given by the notable late Shri Raj Kamal. Songs like Jaanam, Chand jaise mukhde pe and Tujhe Dekh Kar Jagwale Par (from Saawan Ko Aane Do), Kahan se aaye badra (from Chasme Baddoor),Ni Sa Ga Ma Pa (from Anand Mahal) etc leave even the lover of modern songs spell bound.

    During an interview with Spice Music Channel, he told the interviewer that a song he sang for the unreleased Hindi movie Tansen was his all time favorite song in Hindi. Major Hindi musicians worked with him are Salil Chowdhury, Naushad, Ravi, Ravindra Jain, Rajkamal and Usha Khanna. Sitaron Mein Tu Hi is one of his hit music album.

    Works In Other Languages

    Hymns from the Rig-VedaYesudas has sung lot of devotional and bhajans in various languages including Sanskrit, Gujarati, Tulu and Marathi. Two major Indian languages which he has not sung in are Kashmiri and Assamese. He recorded a solo album called Ahimsa, produced by Ricardo Barrantes' Solarwind Music (USA). It is unique in that in this album Yesudas sings in Sanskrit, Latin and in English and in a mix of styles including New-Age and Carnatic conveys the message of Ahimsa and peace.

    In Sanskrit he sings devotional songs, chants, mantras and slokas. Bhagavad Gita, Hymns from the Rig-Veda and Gayatri mantra are some of his the famous albums in Sanskrit.

    His film songs in Bengali are major hits. Naam sokuntala taar -Srikanter Will (1979), Path haraabo boley ebaar - Protiggya (1985) and Aar bujhitey parinaa - Debikaa (1985) are his memorable songs with Salil Chowdhury.

    He is also familiar to the Oriya film world. Mamataari baalijhaDa and E laakhi jaay dekhi -Batasi Jhada (1981) some hit songs.

    He has sung in almost all Indian languages as well as in Arabic and Russian. When visiting the USSR, the Government requested him to sing a Russian song for Radio Kasachstan.

    Last edited by bssusi; 22-11-2006 at 10:39 PM.

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    introduction to north indian music
    The music of India is one of the oldest unbroken musical traditions in the world. It is said that the origins of this system go back to the Vedas (ancient scripts of the Hindus). Many different legends have grown up concerning the origins and development of Indian classical music. Such legends go a long way in showing the importance that music has in defining Indian culture.

    However the advent of modern historical and cultural research has also given us a good perspective on the field. This has shown that Indian music has developed within a very complex interaction between different peoples of different races and cultures. It appears that the ethnic diversity of present day India has been there from the earliest of times.

    The basis for Indian music is "sangeet". Sangeet is a combination of three artforms: vocal music, instrumental music and dance. Although these three artforms were originally derived from the single field of stagecraft. Today these three forms have differentiated into complex and highly refined individual artforms.

    The present system of Indian music is based upon two important pillars: rag and tal. Rag is the melodic form while tal is the rhythmic.

    Rag may be roughly equated with the Western term mode or scale. There is a system of seven notes which are arranged in a means not unlike Western scales. However when we look closely we see that it is quite different what we are familiar with.

    The tal (rhythmic forms) are also very complex. Many common rhythmic patterns exist. They revolve around repeating patterns of beats.

    The interpretation of the rag and the tal is not the same all over India. Today there are two major traditions of classical music. There is the north Indian and the south Indian tradition. The North Indian tradition is known as Hindustani sangeet and the south Indian is called Carnatic sangeet. Both systems are fundamentally similar but differ in nomenclature and performance practice.

    Many musical instruments are peculiar to India. The most famous are the sitar and tabla. However there are many more that the average person may not be familiar with.

    All of this makes up the complex and exciting field of Indian classical music. Its understanding easily consumes an entire lifetime.

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    Default D.K.Pattammal--the legend of carnatic music

    Born on March 2, 1919 to Damal Krishnaswamy Dikshitar and Rajammal, in the temple town of Kancheepuram, the young Patta was considered a uniquely gifted child. Her career is unique in that her foundations were not structured by any formal music classes, or by learning the Sarala Varisai, Janata Varisai, Geetham and Varnam, one after the other.

    Her talent flowered even as she learned to sing slokas at home from her music- loving father and she avidly listened to the musicians who came and performed at Kancheepuram. She received tuition from a Telugu vadhyar who volunteered to give her music lessons.

    It was the recognition and support from her school headmistress Ammakutti Ammal that enabled Pattammal to appear for a government examination in music conducted at Madras even before she reached her teens. Stalwarts in music like Prof. Sambamurthy, Tiger Varadachariar and Sri Ambi Dikshitar were her examiners but it is learnt that Pattammal was not in the least nervous to sing Sri Subramanyaya Namaste in Kambhoji and Naa Jeeva Dhara in Bilahari. Her performance resulted in one of the examiners, Sri Ambi Dikshitar, a scion of the Muthuswamy Dikshitar family, offering to give her instructions in music.
    However after some initial lessons, she had to return to Kancheepuram. Pattammal also attended the summer school for music run by Prof. Sambamurthy and she participated in a few variety programmes given at the summer school. When she was 14, she gave her first public performance at the Mahila Samaj in Egmore and won acclaim. She moved to Madras in 1933 to become a regular performer in the concert circuits of the day in the city.

    Her father not only encouraged her but also instilled in her a sense of discipline and diligence as well as a respect for purity in diction. Even as she matured as a performing artiste, Pattammal was diligence and dedication personified, she often reached out to different sources to enrich her repertoire.

    She took lessons from V.C. Vaidyanathan, a disciple of Ariyakkudi Ramanuja Iyengar, N. S. Krishnaswamy, Kanchi Kamakshiammal and Prof. P.Sambamurthy. She learnt the Dikshithar krithis from Ambi Dikshitar and Justice T. L. Venkatarama Aiyar. She sought Velur Appadorai Achari for Thevaram and the Tiruppugazh verses and to learn padams , she went to Rajalakshmi Ammal, daughter of Veenai Dhanammal. She approached Papanasam Sivan to learn his compositions.

    She lost her father in 1940, but within a few months gained another guiding spirit, Sri Iswaran, an engineer known to the family. Sri Iswaran gave up his career to provide moral support and to manage Pattammal's career. Happily, he is still around.
    Pattammal’s long career as a musician has been a quiet revolution in the sedate world of Carnatic music.

    Not only did Pattammal manage to shed the binding coils of orthodoxy in taking to concert recitals, but she even dared venture into a musical areas to sing pallavi, hitherto considered a male preserve. Her mastery enabled her to command the respect of senior artistes and she came to be known as Pallavi Pattammal.

    Strongly adhering to tradition of the art and a chastity of expression in rendering the Tamil, Telugu and Sanskrit compositions, her music has the beauty and grace of Kancheepuram silk woven on the warp of classical tradition interspersed with the woof of disciplined innovation, in exposition. Her concerts are as much an aural treat to the connoisseurs as object lessons to the young students of music.

    In her earlier years, Pattammal through constant practice and concentration earned her a reputation for her emphasis on laya. She handled very unusual and intricate rhythmic cycles, with consummate ease and command. But as she herself stated “When I was 50, I lost interest in the excitements of laya. I began to feel that bhava was more important. As I sang more and more, I felt the power of the content, deep within me. Entraiku Varumo Sivakripai was not a string of words; it expressed my devotion through the melody. I wanted to communicate its melting quality to the listeners.'' Her music in later years have accorded due place to bhava .

    Pattammal has a unique place of honour and prestige in the world of Indian Classical music. Known not to sacrifice her virtuosity and chastity of expression, at the altar of popularity, Pattammal stands even today as an outstanding example of a music tradition that has not given in to vocal gymnastics to cater to popular tastes. She has pursued music as an art and as a science, and not as a means to acquire fame, honour and wealth.

    Last edited by bssusi; 22-11-2006 at 11:34 PM.

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    Dr.balamurali krishna--carnatic legend
    Padmabhushan Sangeetha Kalanidhi Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna is a trailblazer and a colossal vocalist and also a very important vaggeyakara of the 20th Century.

    Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna was born on July 6, 1930 at Sankaraguptam (a small hamlet in Rajolu Taluk, East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh) to Mangalampalli Pattabhiramayya and Suryakanthamma. He inherited the musical traits of his parents. His father, Pattabhiramayya was a famous flutist and a music teacher and Suryakanthama was a notable veena artiste.

    His father entrusted Balamurali to 'Gayaka Sarvabhauma' Parupalli Ramakrishnayya Pantulu under whose competent tutelage young Balamurali reached the pinnacle of fame in the field of music.

    In 1938, at the age of eight, during the Sadguru Arandhana Utsava, held at Vijayawada, Balamurali Krishna gave his first full- fledged performance.

    His greatest asset is his wonderfully vibrant, widely ranging, magnetic voice over which he has perfect control in all three octaves.

    He is very versatile and apart from being a vocalist, he plays the kanjira, mrdangam, viola and violin. Balamurali Krishna has enriched Carnatic music with his compositions (over 400) and also through the creation of several new musical scales. He has created new ragas like mahati, sumukham, trisakthi, sarvashri, omkari, janasamodini, manorama, rohini, vallabhi, lavangi, pratimadhyamavathi, sushama, etc.

    Balamurali Krishna has also proved his talent as a playback singer, music director and actor in several languages.

    Last edited by bssusi; 22-11-2006 at 11:44 PM.

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    Hindustani musicians of recent days have for their own convenience taken only twelve Svarasthanas in the present system of music: namely, seven Sddha and five Vikrta Svaras. Even then final divisions of these notes are indicated and actually demonstrated in many of the current Ragas.

    Names of the seven pure or suddha svaras are: Sadja, Rsava, Gandhara, Madhyama, Pancama, Dhaivata and Nisada.

    Thus, there are seven Suddha svaras in the scale. In between these, we have also placed five Vikrta svaras, making a total of twelve.

    Sadja, which in short is known as Sa, and Pancama, which is known as Pa, are fixed and unchangeable notes, i.e., "achala svaras" and have no Vikrtis in the present-day music.

    Since the execution of seven svaras in Indian music is sufficiently delicate and svaras are equipped with all possible subtle points, the use of the twelve tempered notes of equal value of Western music has no important place in Indian music. Being essentially melodic, Indian music does not require any harmonisation or modulation for which a twelve-point scale may appear to be convenient. It is apparent, therefore, that keyed instruments, for instance, harmonium, piano, etc, showing octaves divided into twelve equal and tempered half-notes which do not, exactly correspond to the twelve notes (i.e., seven suddha plus five Vikrta) of Indian music, have little recognition M the music of our country. These twelve (seven Suddha and five Vlkrta) subtle notes help to create a flavor in music which is absolutely unknown to the melodic system outside India.

    In the Karnataka system of music, the seven svaras and their variations are known as follows:

    Karnataka Hindusthani

    1. Sadja Sadja

    2. Suddha Rsava Komala Rsava

    3. Suddha Gandbara or Suddha Rsava Catu Sruti Rsavaq

    4. Sat Srut] Rsava or Komala Gandhara Sadharana Gandhara

    5. Antara Gdndhqra Suddha Gandhara

    6. Suddha Madhyama Same

    7. Prati Madhyama Teevra Madhyama

    8. Pancama Same

    9. Suddlia Dhaivata Komala Dhaivata

    10. Catu Sruti Dhaivata or Suddha Dhaivata Suddha Nisdda

    11. Kaisik Nisdda or Sat Komala Nisada Sruti Dhaivata

    12. Kakali Nisada Suddha Nisada

    From Sadja to Pancama, it is called Purvanga and from Madhyama to Tara Sadia, it is called Uttardnga.

    In the music of India the whole range of Vocal Music is divided into three Saptakas, namely, Mandra, Madhya and Tara, which otherwise may be designated as low, middle and high, respectively. But on an instrument, it can be tuned at still higher or still lower, as the case may be. We have taken into consideration only three Sthanas mentioned above.

    Another important aspect of Indian music is that. What is known as that in North India is called Mela in the South.

    Mela is most commonly known these days and it was Pandit Vvankatamakhi in South India who formulated the current system of seventy-two Melas. In North India, the term was first used as Sarbsthana by Lochan Pandit in his book entitled "Raga Tarahgini". While Vyankatamakhi mentioned seventy-two Melas in his Caturdandi Prakashika, Lochan classified Ragas under twelve Saihsthanas only. The number of Thats in present-day Hindusthani music is only ten according to late Pandit Bhatkhande.

    Now let us examine what is exactly meant by the term That. A That is just an arrangement of the seven notes in a Saptaka in which the notes are situated at given intervals and in their natural order. Rilgas are supposed to be born out of Thats and hence a That or a Mela is known as Janaka Mela or the parent scale and Ragas belonging to it are called janya Ragas, that is, Ragas that are born to the parent Mela.

    Since the basic principles of both the systems are common, based as they are on scientific and mathematical calculation, there is of late greater understanding and appreciation of Karnataka music in the North and vice versa, to mutual advantage of both. Each has in a subtle way been enriching the other.

    Pandit Vyankatamakhi produced seventy-two melas or melakartas and is reported to have predicted, "Even gods cannot change these". By mathematical calculation the number seventy-two has been found to be unassailable. Therefore, in a sense his prediction is true. But one need not work out the classification of Ragas in so many Melas, as it is well-known that classification always becomes simpler when the classes are fewer. It is perhaps with this intent that Lochan was satisfied with twelve and Pandit Bhatkhande with ten. Those ten Thats are as follows: (a) Bilawal, (b) Kalyan, (c) Khamaj, (d) Bhairav, (e) Asavari, (f) Bhairavi, (g) Purvi, (h) Marva, (i) Kafi, and (J) Todi.

    A Raga being the combination of svaras which has a pleasing effect on the listener's car is a melody consisting of "Aroha" and "Avaroha" (i.e., ascent and descent). Every Raga must have a Vadi, meaning a note that stands for the Raga. A Vadi thus is the most important of all notes that constitute a Raga. In other words, a Vadi is the key svara or the main note, which predominates in the Raga. A note which is next only to the Vadi in importance is called Samvadi and it follows the keynote, that is, Vadi, like a Mantri or minister. Besides these two, all other notes used in the Raga are known as Anuvadi. Anuvadi is like a servant. A note which is detrimental to the establishment of a Raga is called Vivadi, meaning one that quarrels. (The Vivadi noteis considered as an enemy, because it produces discord.)

    A Vadi is a key svara or the main note, which predominates in the Raga. A Saihvadi is the next important svara of the Raga and follows the key note, that is, Vadi, like a Mantri. There are also Anuvadi and Vivadi notes. The Anuvadi is like a servant and the Vivadi [is considered as ] an enemy.

    The other essential conditions for the formation of a Raga are:

    A Raga must have at least five nots in it. There are three kinds (Jatis) of Ragas according to the number of svaras used. They are:

    1. Sampurna.jati 7 notes (full)

    2. Sadav 6 notes (one less)

    3. Odav 5 notes (two less)

    The possibilities of multiplying Ragas are limitless. It is said that 'Na Raganam talanam Ca Antal Kutrapi Bidyatr. By changing the basic note on the scale, one can get many new Ragas. But we do not know how far these will be sweet to the ear. From the point of view of inter mingling of Ragas this may be an interesting exercise, but if one adheres to it all in an orthodox way in relation to its practical effect, perhaps not much of melodic effect will remain. For music, after all, is not mathematics. It is more than a technique.

    Our ancestors did everything possible including misguidance to guide us in this respect. They took tremendous pains to pass on the inestimable treasures of musical literature to us. Some of them devoted their life-time to the single problem relating to musical invention and problems connected with it. Modern man could at best try to give us a reasonable interpretation of it, but could perhaps add to it very little of this own.

    Many who are good musicians, often claim to have invented new Ragas. Is it so easy to do so? How many things have to be borne in mind for adding a new Raga to our existing list of Ragas? It is not just changing the keynote, or merely blending two or three different Ragas into one, and calling it by some fanciful new name. Every thing has its proper procedure.

    With all due respect to them for their keen desire to invent and their interest in this vast and vital subject of music, they should think that it is better and wiser for them to practise with precision and accuracy the many varieties of Ragas bequeathed to us by our forefathers, instead of going on the wild goose chase of trying to invent new Ragas. There are many Ragas which have been forgotten and are rarely sung. Some may find this incredible, but to be convinced they have only to look around and see. There is great need for the study of the past musical literature and for its careful and correct interpretation as also for its practice. Any scholar will agree that ancient Indian literature on music contains a large number of secrets which modern interpreters have not yet been able to unravel. A good musician cares more for presenting a Raga in all its glory in proper shape and colour; he rarely, if ever, bothers about inventing any thing.

    In the Hindusthani system of music, only about two hundred Ragas are popular and are generally sung. Even out of these, only, about fifty are very popular. The remaining Ragas have conflicting interpretations. For instance, many varieties of Bildwal, Todi, Kanada, etc., are not presented in the same way by different sub-schools of music.

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    hindustani music continuation.......

    Among the most important Ragas of the Hindusthani system which are common and are understood by most are:








    Gaud Sarang




    Sari Raag

    Puriya Dhanasri








    Tilok Kamod


    Mian ki mallar

    Gaud mallar


    Darbari Kannada


    Nayaki Kannada










    Nat Mallar





    Madhumat Sarang

    Ahir Bhairav







    Music must have developed in different forms ever since the Vedic age. Today we have few vestiges of those ancient forms of music. Music, as it was prevalent in those days, later became woven into different forms, of which the Chanda and Prabandha types merit special mention. The Chanda and Prabandha forms of music assumed specific forms and became the subject of many experiments in later days. Ever since mediaeval times, these forms of music ushered in many new types; finally the forms of music which gradually grew out of them and have been very much prevalent even up to the present day in North India are the following:

    Alap, Dhrupad, Dhamar, Dadra, Khayal, Tarana, Tappa, Thumri, Laksana Geeta, etc.

    Actually, tune is the basis of the Raga. There is not much difference between classical and secular music except elaboration of ideas and treatment.

    Usually a song consists of two or four divisions. They are Sthayi, Antara, Sancri and Abhog. The character of each of the forms of songs as mentioned above and which has been very much prevalent even uptil today in North India is described here.

    But true it is that the present-day Hindusthani music with its heritage for the last two hundred years cannot be interpreted on the basis of the Sastras.


    In considering this form we must remember at the outset that Indian music is mainly divided into two categories, Anibaddha and Nibaddha. This division into two categories has been recognised since ancient days. Music which is not conditioned by any specific rhythmic pattern, for instance Alap, is known as "Anibaddha". And all other musical forms which are controlled by Talas or rhythmic patterns come under the category called "Nibaddha". Alap is just the analysis of a Raga or melody. Elaboration in different varieties which are strictly within the boundary and limits of law is the essence of Alap and it provides for a systematic development of the character of a given Raga.

    A Raga in Alap can be sung or played for hours together if the artist is a high-class singer or instrumentalist (player). It is very pleasing to the ear and, if sung with mastery, in the proper atmosphere it can hold listeners spell bound for long. No words are used to sing an Alap; occasionally, "ta-na-ri-na" or "Ak ars" are used.

    The first part of an Alap introduces the Raga in Sthayi and occupies considerable time, because it is in this part that the main structure of the Rdga is developed. After this the other divisions of singing or playing, namely, Antara, Sancari and Abhog fall, but not so elaborately. All these divisions are presented in three stages of a progressively increasing tempo, namely, Vilambit or slow, Madhya or neither slow nor quickly and Drut or quick. No percussion instruments accompany this part. After this follows a variety of tonal and rhythmic patterns suitable to the Raga itself. The number of those patterns depends on the range of training the artist receives in different modes or methods of presentations of Ragas through the AlAp. A Ragalapti seems to be more or less what has been described above. A Rupakalap, on the other hand, is believed to contain more rhythmic elements.


    Dhrupads are also known as Dhruvapads. This is a very old and orthodox style of composition. Dhruvapads were first introduced by Raja Mansingh of Gwalior. Tansen became a great Dhrupad singer. This requires a well-trained voice and ability to modulate it with perfection they start singing this in a very slow tempo, in the 'mandra sthayi' first, in a full-throated voice and gradually develop it. A Dhruvapad contains all the four parts mentioned earlier, i.e., 'Sthayi, 'Antara', 'Sancari', and 'Abhog'. There are three or four varieties of Dhruvapads. Dhrupads are generally composed in Choutal, Shultal, Teebra, Rupak etc. Even today there are some expert "Dhrupad" singers in Rampur. "Sadra" is a kind of fast "Dhrupad" suing in Jhanptal.


    This is a peculiar type of singing. The words are generally composed to suit the significance of the festival of spraying of colour and coloured water and depicting Radha and Krsna as heroine and hero.

    The rhythm and the time measurement are the peculiarities in this type. Some piece or passage is taken again and again in different metres changing the rhythm and catching the "sam" of the tal. In North India, Dhamars like Dhrupads are also very popular. Varieties of rhythm and fixed measures of the tal are its characteristics.

    Another form of song known as Hori is always sung in the Dhamar tal, or in other words, Hori is another name of Dhamar.


    Sadra is a form of Hindustliani music which stands between Dhrupad and Khayal. The tal used in it is generally Jhanap It may be regarded as a combination of the elements both of Dhamar and Khayal and as such may be divided into two types, (i) that which conforms more to Dhamar and may be called Dhrupadanga Sadra, and (ii) that which adopts more elements of Khayal and may be called KhayaIdnga Sadra. There are, however, a number of pure Dhrupad compositions which are also sung in jhWip. These songs are to be regarded as Dhrupad and must not be confused with Sadra.


    According to some scholars of Indian music Sultan Hussain was considered the originator of the Khayal style (1296-1316 A.D.). Be that as it may, a Khayal is now the most popular form of classical music. The beauty of this style is that it can be expanded upto any length of time, representing various "Kalas' (patterns). These Khayals are of two kinds-the 'Vilambit' which is sung very, very slow (in a slow tempo) and which is usually composed and set to Ektal, Trital, 'Jhumra, Tilwada, etc., and the 'Drut', that is, the fast Khayal, which is sung in a fast tempo, and sung with a good elaboration of tan in different patterns. A fast Khayal is usually set in 'Trital', 'Jhanptal' or 'Ektal'. There is a saying that Gwalior was once upon a time a seat of music, and the reason for this, according to legend, is that music used to ring through the walls and would be carried by the breeze and heard. That is how everyone there became music-minded. The final and most dignified form of Khayal was given by Saddrang.


    This is a peculiar style of singing. It is believed that when Amir Khusro first came to India as an unknown man, he found it very difficult to pronounce the high-flown Sanskrit words to be found in texts of songs, and hence he invented this style, leaving all words and putting meaningless syllables into these tunes, such as "to, nam, ri, tom, nom, dri, nam, tom", etc., and called it Tarana. But actually these meaningless syllables are so called 'Bols' of pprcussion instruments like Tabla and Pakhwaj and musical instruments like Veena and Sitar. They had existed in the Prabandhas from a previous age.


    The main theme of the Tappa style of songs is to express the pangs and pleasures of love. These were first intended to be sung only by those suffering from love or were separated from their lovers and were sting in a rather crude, unembellished, vulgar way. People coming from respectable families rarely sang these. Now-a-days, these are sung in a more refined and polished way. These consist of two divisions only. These Tappas, it is believed, were first introduced by a famous Muhammedan singer, Golarn Nabi by name. Golam Nabi was later named as Shouri Mian of Lucknow and he lived about 18 10 A. D. A Tappa, when properly rendered, brings out all the subtle graces which are inherent in the song. It is full of melody when properly sung and has a marked rhythm. The most saliant feature in a Tappa is the Tan known as jam Jama. The basis of a Tappa is supposed to be the camel-drivers' songs of Punjab. A Tappa is gradually going out of fashion.

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    The great Nawab of Oudh, who was himself a good musician, Nawab Walid Ali Shah of Lucknow, was the greatest pioneer in introducing the Thumri style of music. This style is supposed to have grown out of songs like Kajri, which are a mixture of Khayals and another type of song known as Tappa. These are mostly based on love themes, and are very romantic in their content and presentation.

    Lucknow and Varanasi (Benares) are specially famous for Thuntris. Music artistes of these two cities generally combine two or three Ragas, and make it a lively and fascinating rendering. They can keep the whole audience enraptured with their musical patterns for long hours. Sophisticate musicians and the elite of the society often look down upon this romantic style of singing, as it is not considered to be very pure or formal.


    These are little songs. They give a picture of the Raga in which it is composed. Even a novice can without much difficulty form an idea of the characteristics and conditions laid down for it for being sung from the description of the particular Raga. It describes the laksanas or essential characteristics and hence it has come to be known as a "Laksana Geeta

    For attaining emancipation or Moksa in the Hindu way of thinking and living the path of devotion is the easiest and most effective. Devotion towards the God obviously entails recitals of music completely.

    The cult of Bhakti and ideas of devotion also emanate from the fountain-source of music. Of all our concepts music obviously furnishes an emotional appeal unto the inner recesses of the human soul.

    Even inanimate objects are moved and influenced by recitals of music. There is music in the flow of waters of the river, in the breeze, in the planets. Music has its echoes almost in all branches of fine arts. The human soul too becomes tuned up in the harmony and rhythm of musical recitals. Harmony and rhythm find their proper way of release into the secret depth of the human soul and make the human soul entirely oblivious of' the outside world, and keep the soul submerged in sublime peace.

    With the vocal recital of devotional songs a devotee happens to forget everything in the world and becomes totally sunk into the nectar of music.

    In the proper method of demonstrations of the vocal recital of songs of an earnest devotee there is always a harmonious blending of Rasa, Bhava and Rachana just like the form, colour and fragrance in beautiful flowers.

    Together with the vocal recital of devotional songs dances are also performed. Dances accompaied by devotional songs are inseparable as the sacred movements of the various limbs of the body echo e divine Bhava of the inner mind. Dance performance or Nritya is divine indeed. The six types of Bhava-Shristi, Samhar, Vidya, Avidya, Gati and gati are perfectly revealed in dance manifestations of Bhaktas and these are external. The thrill of the ecstasy of feelings from within helps them, prompts hem in merging themselves in the Lord. Supreme joy and magnanimity of this sacred feeling of Nritya understood by Rishis and devotees like Narada, Suka, Vyasa, Mira Bai, Kabir, Gouranga, Hafiz and others make worldly persons whose minds are saturated with passion realise this supreme joy.

    For this celestial Nritya Lord Siva, Krishna and Goddess Kali are the pioneers who showed the way. Music and pop-songs of today which accompany dances also are certainly the outcome of passion and thoughts of very low origin.

    These dance performances are basically guided by lust and material desires. Our Indian tradition does not accommodate such dance performances tinged with lust and desire.

    Of all the fine arts, making of sculptures, literature and painting, music is the subtlest. All other avenues of emotional expression of human beings have the usual advantage of some kind of form, those objects of fine arts are able to appeal direct to the human mind through the eye, the sensitive ear, and those feelings are of comparative stability of existence or of some duration. The forms can be steady for constant inspection and can be observed and even corrected or re-arranged over and over again, if required. But for music there is no such facility. Musical sounds are basically invisible, lingering in the air for a very short while, then it gets merged into other tunes, leaving no record behind for verification, unless it is tape-recorded as the system happens to be in vogue currently. Even in its impact and influence on the human mind, however, it is more universal than other fine arts. Other forms of the fine arts can neither be enjoyed nor appreciated by the person concerned if he has no preparation or training in these respective arts and principles of their functioning. But music is meant for all: even from inanimate objects to principles of consciousness. Even an earnest Yogi, man or woman practising Yoga or an ascetic person finds his way for the emancipation of the soul through music. If there is any force in the world which can make a man, with all his conflict of feelings, passions and with sorrow, disease and death pestering him at every step, forget all the sorrows for at least a blissful tranquillity of uninterrupted pleasure, it is music and music alone which can make him plunge into that blissful tranquillity at least for some time. This form of fine art happens to be the character of music

    delectable medium for getting into tune with the Infinite, with the sublime goal of human thought and this sort of favour has been bestowed on mankind by the unseen merciful God.

    In India this wonderful art had been largely cultivated at least 3,000 years ago, this art had attained a very high level of perfection. Music of India no doubt furnishes unmistakable indications to the world of a very high state of civilisation which the people of this land had achieved even in those early times. The very outlook and tendency of Indian music had distinguished the music of this country from its prototypes in other spheres. In India it was never regarded as a mere system or as a lay art of the laymen, for the pleasure of the sensuous aspects of men. Music in India was always deemed as an extension and outward symbolisation of the Pranava which is omnipresent. The sound Om or Omkar was utilised only for purposes of the attainment of God; till the present day this feature has been retained and this feature bad been effective vitally up to the end of the last century, the subject of musical recitals and compositions has rarely been anything but God and the glories of God.

    Along these lines the system of music had developed, originally music was reckoned as one and the same throughout this vast country: between nature and purpose musical recitals had comprised a supreme unity. The music in the northern part of our country came to be gradually influenced by the impact of Arabic, Persian and Mughal civilisations and as a result of that the music of India began to show increasingly certain natural and inevitable changes in practice. Gradually in the course of other trends of events music of India came to be labeled or styled as the northern or Hindusthani Music. Because of its geographical position and its topography the southern part of India had escaped from coming under the sway of these foreign influences like those of Persian, Arabic and certain Central Asian countries: the original character and system of the music in South India was, therefore, preserved in a much purer condition; Indian musical pattern of the South was in later days recognised as the Karnatic Music. That both these systems, Hindusthani and Karnatic music, are of the same origin and substance has been widely accepted on all hands; of course considerable variations have manifested themselves owing to growing differences in the styles of musical recitals and in the styles of expression.

    Since time immemorial Indian music had been limited to its practical and demonstration aspects. As demonstration aspects of music developed sufficiently with diversified growth the theoretical and grammatical aspects of music also began to crop up gradually. If the practical methods of the demonstration of music cultivated by experiences would have continued through centuries, the typical pattern of the recital of Indian music could have been saved from oblivion and distortion. Theories of music of India would have been very lively if musical recitals were much cared for in earlier days. So in later days studies of Indian musical theories were deemed essential. Theories on music were accordingly the guiding principles on the pattern of the demonstration of music in different periods of our cultural history and had also functioned as a grammar of principles on the practical demonstration of music and these principles had obviously been followed by posterity. Purandara Das, Saranga Deva, Vyankatamakhi and many other evolvers of the theories of music in the past and many other remarkable grammarians and theoreticians of music of the bygone days had left for subsequent generations wonderfully rich treasures of knowledge on music. We had had very clear and accurate expressions of the principles of vocal and instrumental demonstrations of musical recitals entailing different expositions of the basic Ragas and Melas, the pattern and expositions of the distinctive Gamakas and many other important aspects concerning the true representation of Ragas and Raginis. All these help even today a performing music artiste to have a firm and comprehensive grasp on his specific area of musical demonstrations.

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    I think there should be a prize for reading out entire thread.................

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    Quote Originally Posted by View Post
    I think there should be a prize for reading out entire thread.................
    sssssssss...azmat...i have told the moderators to give a gift to all the sb members WHO read this thread-- entire pages with PATIENCE BUT NO GRUMBLING.....

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    Default Something About Music N Musical Intruments Added Along With The Legends...plzz Wait..

    Musical instrument

    A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. In principle, anything that produces sound, and can somehow be controlled by a musician, can serve as a musical instrument. The expression, however, is reserved generally to items that have a specific musical purpose. The academic study of musical instruments is called organology.

    Types of musical instruments
    Instruments are often divided by the way in which they generate sound:

    Wind instruments generate a sound when a column of air is made to vibrate inside them. The frequency of the wave generated is related to the length of the column of air and the shape of the instrument, while the tone quality of the sound generated is affected by the construction of the instrument and method of tone production. The group is typically subdivided into Brass, like the trumpet, and Woodwind instruments, such as the clarinet, bagpipes and flute.
    Lamellaphones create a sound by the plucking of lamellas made from different materials (metal, raphia etc.). These Instruments are tunable, so they do not belong to the idiophones. An example is the Mbira.
    Percussion instruments create sound, with or without pitch, when struck. The shape and material of the part of the instrument to be struck and the shape of the resonating cavity, if any, determine the sound of the instrument. Examples: drums, bells and cymbals.
    String instruments generate a sound when the string is plucked, strummed, slapped, etc. The frequency of the wave generated (and therefore the note produced) usually depends on the length of the vibrating portion of the string, its linear density (mass per unit length of string), the tension of each string and the point at which the string is excited; the tone quality varies with the construction of the resonating cavity. Examples: guitars, violins and sitars.
    Voice, that is, the human voice, is an instrument in its own right. A singer generates sounds when airflow from the lungs sets the vocal cords into oscillation. The fundamental frequency is controlled by the tension of the vocal cords and the tone quality by the formation of the vocal tract; a wide range of sounds can be created.
    Electronic instruments generate sound through electronic means. They often mimic other instruments in their design, particularly keyboards, drums and guitars. Examples: synthesizers and theremins.
    Keyboard instruments are any instruments that are played with a musical keyboard. Every key generates one or more sounds; most keyboard instruments have extra means (pedals for a piano, stops for an organ) to manipulate these sounds. They may produce sound by wind being fanned (organ) or pumped (accordion), vibrating strings either hammered (piano) or plucked (harpsichord), by electronic means (synthesizer) or in some other way. Sometimes, instruments that do not usually have a keyboard, such as the Glockenspiel, are fitted with one. This term is also used to refer to the family of percussion instruments who resemble a piano keyboard. Though they have no moving parts and are struck by mallets held in the player's hands, they possess the same physical arrangement of keys and produce soundwaves in a similar manner.
    Many alternate divisions and further subdivisions of instruments exist. To learn about specific instruments, consult the list of musical instruments or list of archaic musical instruments.

    All classes of instruments save the electronic are mentioned in ancient sources, such as Egyptian inscriptions, the Bible and the many thousand year old Hindu Vedas, and probably predate recorded history. The human body, generating both vocal and percussive sounds, may have been the first instrument. Percussion instruments such as stones and hollow logs are another likely candidate. For instance, nine-thousand-year-old bone flutes or recorders have been found in Chinese archeological sites.


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