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Thread: A to Z of Stock Market

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    The Lone Ranger Lieutenant General rishabhd's Avatar
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    Default A to Z of Stock Market

    Hello gyuz i am starting a thread about stock market where i will post some details about stock market for rookies and also post daily alerts /updates about Indian and international market and i will also post Annual and quarterly results of companies......I hope you like it
    Wo Acha Hay Tou Behtar, Bura Hay Tou Bhi Qabool
    Mizaaj-E-Ishq Mein Aib-O-Hunar Dekhe Nahi Jatay...!!!


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    What is a Stock Exchange?

    A common platform where buyers and sellers come together to transact in stocks and shares. It may be a physical entity where brokers trade on a physical trading floor via an "open outcry" system or a virtual environment.


    What is electronic trading?

    Electronic trading eliminates the need for physical trading floors. Brokers can trade from their offices, using fully automated screen-based processes. Their workstations are connected to a Stock Exchange's central computer via satellite using Very Small Aperture Terminus (VSATs). The orders placed by brokers reach the Exchange's central computer and are matched electronically.


    How many Exchanges are there in India?

    The Stock Exchange, Mumbai (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE) are the country's two leading Exchanges. There are 20 other regional Exchanges, connected via the Inter-Connected Stock Exchange (ICSE). The BSE and NSE allow nationwide trading via their VSAT systems.


    What is an Index?

    An Index is a comprehensive measure of market trends, intended for investors who are concerned with general stock market price movements. An Index comprises stocks that have large liquidity and market capitalisation. Each stock is given a weightage in the Index equivalent to its market capitalisation. At the NSE, the capitalisation of NIFTY (fifty selected stocks) is taken as a base capitalisation, with the value set at 1000. Similarly, BSE Sensitive Index or Sensex comprises 30 selected stocks. The Index value compares the day's market capitalisation vis-a-vis base capitalisation and indicates how prices in general have moved over a period of time.


    How does one execute an order?

    Select a broker of your choice and enter into a broker-client agreement and fill in the client registration form. Place your order with your broker preferably in writing. Get a trade confirmation slip on the day the trade is executed and ask for the contract note at the end of the trade date.


    Why does one need a broker?

    As per SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India.) regulations, only registered members can operate in the stock market. One can trade by executing a deal only through a registered broker of a recognised Stock Exchange or through a SEBI-registered sub-broker.


    What is a contract note?

    A contract note describes the rate, date, time at which the trade was transacted and the brokerage rate. A contract note issued in the prescribed format establishes a legally enforceable relationship between the client and the member in respect of trades stated in the contract note. These are made in duplicate and the member and the client both keep a copy each. A client should receive the contract note within 24 hours of the executed trade. Corporate Benefits/Action


    What is a book-closure/record date?

    Book closure and record date help a company determine exactly the shareholders of a company as on a given date. Book closure refers to the closing of register of the names or investors in the records of a company. Companies announce book closure dates from time to time. The benefits of dividends, bonus issues, rights issue accruing to investors whose name appears on the company's records as on a given date, is known as the record date.

    An investor might purchase a share-cum-dividend, cum rights or cum bonus and may therefore expect to receive these benefits as the new shareholder. In order to receive this, the share has to be transferred in the investor's name, or he would stand deprived of the benefits. The buyer of such a share will be a loser. It is important for a buyer of a share to ensure that shares purchased at cum benefits prices are transferred before book-closure. It must be ensured that the price paid for the shares is ex-benefit and not cum benefit.

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    The Lone Ranger Lieutenant General rishabhd's Avatar
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    What is the difference between book closure and record date?

    In case of a record date, the company does not close its register of security holders. Record date is the cut off date for determining the number of registered members who are eligible for the corporate benefits. In case of book closure, shares cannot be sold on an Exchange bearing a date on the transfer deed earlier than the book closure. This does not hold good for the record date.


    What is a no-delivery period?

    Whenever a company announces a book closure or record date, the Exchange sets up a no-delivery (ND) period for that security. During this period only trading is permitted in the security. However, these trades are settled only after the no-delivery period is over. This is done to ensure that investor's entitlement for the corporate benefit is clearly determined.


    What is an ex-dividend date?

    The date on or after which a security begins trading without the dividend (cash or stock) included in the contract price.


    What is an ex-date?

    The first day of the no-delivery period is the ex-date. If there is any corporate benefits such as rights, bonus, dividend announced for which book closure/record date is fixed, the buyer of the shares on or after the ex-date will not be eligible for the benefits.


    What is a Bonus Issue?

    While investing in shares the motive is not only capital gains but also a proportionate share of surplus generated from the operations once all other stakeholders have been paid. But the distribution of this surplus to shareholders seldom happens. Instead, this is transferred to the reserves and surplus account. If the reserves and surplus amount becomes too large, the company may transfer some amount from the reserves account to the share capital account by a mere book entry. This is done by increasing the number of shares outstanding and every shareholder is given bonus shares in a ratio called the bonus ratio and such an issue is called bonus issue. If the bonus ratio is 1:2, it means that for every two shares held, the shareholder is entitled to one extra share. So if a shareholder holds two shares, post bonus he will hold three.


    What is a Split?

    A Split is book entry wherein the face value of the share is altered to create a greater number of shares outstanding without calling for fresh capital or altering the share capital account. For example, if a company announces a two-way split, it means that a share of the face value of Rs 10 is split into two shares of face value of Rs 5 each and a person holding one share now holds two shares.


    What is a Buy Back?

    As the name suggests, it is a process by which a company can buy back its shares from shareholders. A company may buy back its shares in various ways: from existing shareholders on a proportionate basis; through a tender offer from open market; through a book-building process; from the Stock Exchange; or from odd lot holders.A company cannot buy back through negotiated deals on or off the Stock Exchange, through spot transactions or through any private arrangement. Clearing and Settlement.


    What is a settlement cycle?

    The accounting period for the securities traded on the Exchange. On the NSE, the cycle begins on Wednesday and ends on the following Tuesday, and on the BSE the cycle commences on Monday and ends on Friday.At the end of this period, the obligations of each broker are calculated and the brokers settle their respective obligations as per the rules, bye-laws and regulations of the Clearing Corporation.If a transaction is entered on the first day of the settlement, the same will be settled on the eighth working day excluding the day of transaction. However, if the same is done on the last day of the settlement, it will be settled on the fourth working day excluding the day of transaction.


    What is a rolling settlement?

    The rolling settlement ensures that each day's trade is settled by keeping a fixed gap of a specified number of working days between a trade and its settlement. At present, this gap is five working days after the trading day. The waiting period is uniform for all trades. When does one deliver the shares and pay the money to broker?As a seller, in order to ensure smooth settlement you should deliver the shares to your broker immediately after getting the contract note for sale but in any case before the pay-in day. Simliarly, as a buyer, one should pay immediately on the receipt of the contract note for purchase but in any case before the pay-in day.


    What is short selling?

    Short selling is a legitimate trading strategy. It is a sale of a security that the seller does not own, or any sale that is completed by the delivery of a security borrowed by the seller. Short sellers take the risk that they will be able to buy the stock at a more favourable price than the price at which they "sold short."
    Wo Acha Hay Tou Behtar, Bura Hay Tou Bhi Qabool
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    The Lone Ranger Lieutenant General rishabhd's Avatar
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    What is an auction?

    An auction is conducted for those securities that members fail to deliver/short deliver during pay-in. Three factors primarily give rise to an auction: short deliveries, un-rectified bad deliveries,un-rectified co. objec.


    Is there a separate market for auctions?

    The buy/sell auction for a capital market security is managed through the auction market. As opposed to the normal market where trade matching is an on-going process, the trade matching process for auction starts after the auction period is over.


    What happens if the shares are not bought in the auction?

    If the shares are not bought at the auction i.e. if the shares are not offered for sale, the Exchange squares up the transaction as per SEBI guidelines. The transaction is squared up at the highest price from the relevant trading period till the auction day or at 20 per cent above the last available Closing price whichever is higher. The pay-in and pay-out of funds for auction square up is held along with the pay-out for the relevant auction.


    What is bad delivery?

    SEBI has formulated uniform guidelines for good and bad delivery of documents. Bad delivery may pertain to a transfer deed being torn, mutilated, overwritten, defaced, or if there are spelling mistakes in the name of the company or the transfer. Bad delivery exists only when shares are transferred physically. In "Demat" bad delivery does not exist. What are company objections?A list documenting reasons by a company for not transferring a share in the name of an investor is called company objections. Rejection occurs due to a signature difference, or fake shares, or forgery, or if there is a court injunction preventing the transfer of the shares.


    What should one do with company objections?

    The broker must immediately be notified. Company objection cases should be reported within 12 months from the date of issue of the memo for the original quantity of share under objection.


    Who has to replace the shares in case of company objections?

    The member who has sold the shares first on the Exchange is responsible for replacing the shares within 21 days of the Exchange being informed. Company objection cases that are not rectified or replaced are normally auctioned.


    How does transfer of physical shares take place?

    After a sale, the share certificate along with a proper transfer deed duly stamped and complete in all respects is sent to the company for transfer in the name of the buyer. Once the transfer is registered in the share transfer register maintained by the company, the process of transfer is complete.


    What is equity?

    Funds brought into a business by its shareholders is called equity. It is a measure of a stake of a person or group of persons starting a business.

    Wo Acha Hay Tou Behtar, Bura Hay Tou Bhi Qabool
    Mizaaj-E-Ishq Mein Aib-O-Hunar Dekhe Nahi Jatay...!!!


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    What does investing in equity mean?

    When you buy a company's equity, you are in effect financing it, and being compensated with a stake in the business. You become part-owner of the company, entitled to dividends and other benefits that the company may announce, but without any guarantee of a return on your investments.


    What is fundamental analysis?

    The analysis of factual information like financial figures, balance sheet, and other information publicly available is known as fundamental analysis. This information is used to derive a fair price of the share of the company. The faithful fundamentalists believe that the market incorporates all facts relating to the financial performance of the company. But a systematic analysis will ensure a more accurate valuation of the price. Fundamental analysts use tools such as ratio analysis (P/E, MV/BV) and discounted cash flow analysis in order to arrive at the fair value of a company and hence its share.


    What are financial ratios?

    A ratio is a comparison of two figures. They are culled from the financial statements of a company. These help in assessing the financial health of a company. It could be a ratio between an item from a balance sheet versus another item on the balance sheet. Or it could be a ratio between one figure of the balance sheet with a figure from Profit and Loss account or it could be comparison of one year's figure with a figure from the previous year.For example Return on Equity = Net profit (A Profit and a Loss figure) divided by Net Worth (a balance sheet figure) in percentage terms.


    What are the various kinds of financial ratios?

    There are many financial ratios. Some of the better known include:
    Liquidity Ratios: Liquidity ratio measures the ability of a firm to meet its current obligations. Liquidity ratios by establishing a relationship between cash and other current assets to current obligations give measure of liquidity.e.g. Current ratio [CR] = Current Assets/Current liabilities.A high CR ratio (>2.5) indicates that a company can meets its short term liabilities.

    Leverage Ratios: Leverage ratio indicates the proportion of debt and equity in financing the firm's assets. They indicate the funds provided by owners and lenders.e.g -----Debt-equity ratio (D-E ratio) total long term debt/net worth.A high D-E ratio indicates that the company's credit profile is bad.

    Activity Ratios: Activity ratios are employed to evaluate the efficiency with which firms manage and run their assets. They are also called turnover ratios.e.g-- Sales Turnover ratio = sales/total assets .A Sales Turnover ratio indicates how much business a company generates for every additional rupee invested.

    Profitability Ratios: These ratios indicate the level of profitability of the business with relation to the inputs or capital employed. Some better-known profit ratios include operating profit margin (OPM). Operating profit margin is a measure of the company's efficiency, either in isolation or in comparison to its peers.


    What is EPS, P/E, BV and MV/BV?

    Earning Per Share (EPS): EPS represents the portion of a company's profit allocated to each outstanding share of common stock. Net income (reported or estimated) for a period of time is divided by the total number of shares outstanding during that period. It is one of the measures of the profitability of common shareholder's investments. It is given by profit after tax (PAT) divided by number of common shares outstanding.

    Price Earning Multiple (P/E): Price earning multiple is ratio between market value per share and earning per share.

    Book Value (BV): (of a common share) The company's Net worth (which is paid-up capital + reserves & surplus) divided by number of shares outstanding.

    Market value to book value ratio (MV/BV ratio): It is the ratio between the market price of a security and Book Value of the security.


    What is technical analysis?

    Technical analysis is the study of historic price movements of securities and trading volumes.

    Technical analysts believe that prices of the securities are determined largely by forces of demand and supply. Share prices move in patterns which are easily identifiable. Crucial insights into these patterns can be obtained by keeping track of price charts, leading to predictions that a stock price may move up or down. The belief is that by knowing the past, future prices can predicted.

    What is Demat?

    Demat is a commonly used abbreviation of Dematerialisation, which is a process whereby securities like shares, debentures are converted from the "material" (paper documents) into electronic data and stored in the computers of an electronic Depository (SEE next page).
    You surrender material securities registered in your name to a Depository Participant (DP). These are then sent to the respective companies who cancel them after dematerialisation and credit your Depository Account with the DP. The securities on dematerialisation appear as balances in the Depository Account. These balances are transferable like physical shares. If at a later date you wish to have these "Demat" securities converted back into paper certificates, the Depository can help to revive the paper shares.

    What is the procedure for the dematerialisation of securities?

    Check with a DP as to whether the securities you hold can be dematerialised. Then open an account with a DP and surrender the share certificates.

    What is a Depository?

    A Depository is a securities "bank," where dematerialised physical securities are held in custody, and from where they can be traded. This facilitates faster, risk-free and low cost settlement. A Depository is akin to a bank and performs activities similar in nature.
    At present, there are two Depositories in India, National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) and Central Depository Services (CDS). NSDL was the first Indian Depository. It was inaugurated in November 1996. NSDL was set up with an initial capital of Rs 124 crore, promoted by Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI), Unit Trust of India (UTI), National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (NSEIL) and the State Bank of India (SBI).

    Who is a Depository Participant (DP)?

    NSDL carries out its activities through business partners - Depository Participants (DPs), Issuing Corporates and their Registrars and Transfer Agents, Clearing Corporations/Clearing Houses? NSDL is electronically linked to each of these business partners via a satellite link through Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATS). The entire integrated system (including the VSAT linkups and the software at NSDL and at each business partner's end) has been named the "NEST" (National Electronic Settlement & Transfer) system. The investor interacts with the Depository through a Depository Participant of NSDL. A DP can be a bank, financial institution, a custodian or a broker.
    Wo Acha Hay Tou Behtar, Bura Hay Tou Bhi Qabool
    Mizaaj-E-Ishq Mein Aib-O-Hunar Dekhe Nahi Jatay...!!!


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    without readin it.. i m already loving it... for ur work...
    bigggg reepppppssss

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    The Lone Ranger Lieutenant General rishabhd's Avatar
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    Default FIIs invest Rs 2,100 crore in equities in 3 sessions of June

    MUMBAI: Bullish foreign fund houses have invested over Rs 2,100 crore in the Indian equity market in the first three trading sessions of this month.


    According to market analysts, Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) investors are buying the India's economic growth story and country's strong corporate earnings.



    Till June 3, FIIs were gross buyers of shares worth Rs 10,425 crore, while they sold equities amounting to Rs 8,323 crore, resulting in a net investment of Rs 2,102 crore, or USD 467 million, as per the data available with the Sebi.



    "At the macro level, India is still among the best macro stories in the world.



    People are so much focussed on rising inflation that they ignore the fact that there is real economic growth and robust corporate results," SMC Global Securities Ltd Strategist and Head of Research Jagannadham Thunuguntla said.



    Besides, foreign fund houses have infused Rs 144 crore in the debt market. This takes the overall net investments by FIIs into stocks and bonds to a total of Rs 2,246 crore or about USD 499 million.



    In contrast, overseas investors pulled out Rs 6,614.40 crore from the stock market in the month of May, whereas they poured Rs 2,338.4 crore in the debt market during the period, translating into a net withdrawal of Rs 4,276 crore.



    So far in 2011, FIIs have made a net investment of Rs 13,942.5 crore in the debt market, whereas they have put in just Rs 200 crore in the equities market so far this year.



    While, some analysts are of the view that inflation, crude oil prices, and global factors such as European debt crisis are at centre stage and FII's movement of infusing and withdrawing fresh capital will depend on the news flow.



    In 2010, foreign investors made a net investment of over Rs 1.75 lakh crore, a record for a year.
    Wo Acha Hay Tou Behtar, Bura Hay Tou Bhi Qabool
    Mizaaj-E-Ishq Mein Aib-O-Hunar Dekhe Nahi Jatay...!!!


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    Default India likely to open doors to Tesco & global supermarket giants in multi-brand retail

    LONDON: India is likely to open up its doors for Tesco and other overseas supermarket giants to set up multi-brand retail stores in the country, Minister of State for Commerce and Industry Jyotiraditya Scindia has indicated.

    "The way I envisage it is that it must involve investment not only in the front-end, but also in the back-end," Scindia told the Sunday Telegraph.

    A committee formed to explore deregulation in the sector has submitted a favourable report and ministers are preparing to forward the proposal to Cabinet.

    It is likely to include obligations on new entrants to invest heavily in "back-end" warehousing, food processing and refrigerated transport networks and to create new jobs in rural India.

    "For any foreign investor - take your country (UK) for example, your Tesco, or France's Carrefour - today (the market is) 100 per cent open in the cash-and-carry business.

    "But if you extend that into the agricultural sector, I'm sure they will like to come into the back-end and they must.

    "That's where the value creation happens and if we can do as much of that in the rural hinterland, it will assist their business model from a cost point of view and it will assist India's story in terms of inclusive economic growth," he said.

    He said India is currently the world's largest producer of milk, the second largest in fruit and vegetable output and third in grain production, but barely 5 per cent of its produce is processed and 30 per cent rots before it reaches the market.

    The government believes supermarket giants like Tesco, Carrefour and Walmart can play a vital role in revolutionising the sector and investing heavily in cold-chain logistics and food processing.

    Now, they are limited to "single-brand retail" and cash- and-carry operations, but the carrot to lure them into heavier investment will be the opportunity to open their own multi- brand supermarkets as majority partners.
    Wo Acha Hay Tou Behtar, Bura Hay Tou Bhi Qabool
    Mizaaj-E-Ishq Mein Aib-O-Hunar Dekhe Nahi Jatay...!!!


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    The Lone Ranger Lieutenant General rishabhd's Avatar
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    Default Currency rate movements impact investments

    Currency is a physical object issued and guaranteed by the central bank or finance ministry of a country. The purpose of currency is to facilitate trade in goods and services within as well as outside a country. Currency exchange rates are the prices at which goods and services of one country can be traded with foreigners. There are some models to determine the currency exchange rates.

    Free-floating and pegged currency models

    The central bank or finance ministry of a country decides on the model of their local currency. In case of free-floating currency, its exchange rate is allowed to vary with respect to other currencies based on market forces of supply and demand. Exchange rates for such currencies are likely to change almost every moment.

    On the other hand, in a pegged currency model, the local currency is fixed at a certain exchange rate against the leading currency. The central bank takes care to match the demand and supply of foreign currency to maintain the peg. In India, the managed float currency model is followed. In this model, the rupee is free to follow market pricing up to a certain extent and the Reserve Bank of India ( RBI )) will only control sharp upward or downward movements.

    Balance of payment model

    This model pegs the exchange rate based on the aggregate imports and exports of a country. A nation with a trade deficit will have a reduction in its foreign exchange reserves and depreciation in its currency value. A cheaper currency makes exports more profitable but imports will become more expensive. As a result, imports are forced to slow down and exports go up. Therefore, it results in stabilising the trade balance and currency.

    There has been a lot of volatility in the currency markets over the last few months (especially between the US dollar and Euro). The main reason for this crosscurrency volatility is the economic uncertainty in the Euro zone and ample supply of the US dollar owing to the second phase of quantitative easing in the US. There have been many sharp movements in the currency markets in the recent past.

    Almost every movement was triggered by news of economic uncertainty - slow recovery in the US, debt crisis of European countries, slowdown in China, and disaster in Japan. Therefore, investors should track the global developments closely along with the economic condition of the country to get a sense on the future prospects of a particular currency.

    Volatile currency movements impact almost everyone directly or indirectly. At the individual level, many global commodities' pricing is subject to currency movements. Almost every company has some exposure to currency fluctuations due to relevance of imports or exports of goods and services. Currency fluctuations severely impact companies that are dependent significantly on imports or exports. Investors should remain cautious with investments in such companies.

    These are some strategies you can adopt while investing

    in import or export-driven companies:

    Diversify

    First of all, you should look at diversification of your portfolio. You should limit your investments in one particular stock or sector.

    Go for large companies

    In the case of investments in import or export-oriented companies, you should ideally look at investing in large companies having business interests in many countries and currencies. Large companies have the strength to hedge and minimise loss due to currency fluctuations.

    Balance investments

    You can balance your investments with positions in both import as well as export-oriented companies. This way, the two investments will neutralise the impact of currency movements to some exten
    Wo Acha Hay Tou Behtar, Bura Hay Tou Bhi Qabool
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    The Lone Ranger Lieutenant General rishabhd's Avatar
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    Default Market to stay cautious ahead of government meet on fuel prices

    NEW DELHI: Stock market may witness continued buying, but the overall mood will remain cautious as the government may decide on raising fuel prices this week, say experts.


    "We expect continued buying in the market after the end of the fourth quarter results. The most positive factor is that progress of monsoon is as per the schedule.



    However, given that confidence levels are still low, a keenly awaited event will be the government meeting on June 9 for changes to oil and gas price," said Motilal Oswal Securities Associate VP Senior Analyst Technical Equities Parag Doctor.



    Analysts said the government decision on raising fuel prices can act as a hindrance to the market movement. Further, a host of other factors can influence the sentiment in the near future.



    "RBI mid-quarter review on June 16, EGoM on fuel prices on June 9, April IIP data and May inflation would be the key events that could have a bearing on the direction of the markets in the coming days," said IIFL Head of Research (India Private Clients) Amar Ambani.



    They said increase in FII inflows provided some relief to the market last week and hoped the trend will continue in the near-term, even as the macro-economic backdrop remains challenging as underscored by the poor GDP data for the March quarter of last fiscal.



    Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) were net buyers last week and bought shares worth Rs 2,365.56 crore, taking the total to Rs 4,023.26 crore in seven straight sessions since May 26, including the provisional data of June 3.



    The BSE benchmark index Sensex settled 110.38 points high at 18,376.48 on Friday.



    Analysts said the market will have to deal with headwinds like high oil prices and rising interest rate in the coming days.



    Uncertainty over global economic recovery is another concern. The US generating much lower-than-expected number of jobs in May at 54,000 can send some jitters to the market, an expert said.
    Wo Acha Hay Tou Behtar, Bura Hay Tou Bhi Qabool
    Mizaaj-E-Ishq Mein Aib-O-Hunar Dekhe Nahi Jatay...!!!


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    Very informative for newbie as well as old people in this field...

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    Rishabd, How can we short or long a share at NSE? What series we need to choose while transacting and how much money should we have in our holding?

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    The Lone Ranger Lieutenant General rishabhd's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by avdhesh View Post
    Rishabd, How can we short or long a share at NSE? What series we need to choose while transacting and how much money should we have in our holding?

    You means Short selling......

    When an investor goes long on an investment, it means that he bought a stock believing its price will rise in the future and when an investor goes short, he is anticipating a decrease in share price.so ussi hisab se profit book hota hai In Short you are expecting ke share price Decrease hoga so jitna decrease hoga uutna Profit.

    Short selling is the selling of a stock that the seller doesn't own short sale is the sale of a security that isn't owned by the seller, but that is promised to be delivered.
    Last edited by rishabhd; 06-06-2011 at 11:15 AM.
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    good start rishab.......... ..
    Thank you bala

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    Nice share Rishab Da.........
    Kuch baat hai ki hasti meet ti nahi hamari
    Sadiyo raha hai dushman daur-e-zamaana hamara



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