Going g8 brother......!
Going g8 brother......!
• What is a codec?
Codec (enCOder/DECoder or COmpressor/DECompressor): software (or hardware) that compresses and decompresses audio and video data streams.
The purpose of codecs is to reduce the size of digital audio samples and video frames in order to speed up transmission and save storage space.
• Lossy or Lossless codecs?
The goal of all codec designers is to maintain audio and video quality while compressing the binary data further.
Most codecs are LOSSY, in order to get a reasonably small file size. There are LOSSLESS codecs as well, but for most purposes the almost imperceptible increase in quality is not worth the considerable increase in data size. The main exception is if the data will undergo more processing in the future, in which case the repeated lossy encoding would damage the eventual quality too much.
Examples of Lossy file formats: AAC (Advanced Audio Coding), MP3, Vorbis (filename extension .OGG), lossy Windows Media Audio (filename extension .WMA)... Example of Lossless file formats: Apple Lossless (filename extension .m4a), FLAC, Monkey's Audio (filename extension .APE), Shorten, TTA, lossless Windows Media Audio (filename extension .WMA), WavPack.
• Few words about containers - or why do i need audio and video codecs to play video files?
A container format is a computer file format that can contain various types of data, compressed in a manner of standardized codecs. The container file is used to be able to identify and interleave (set a value on how often the audio and video streams are "synchronized") the different data types.
Simpler container formats can contain different types of audio codecs, while more advanced (flexible) container formats can support audio, video, subtitles, chapters, and metadata (tags) - along with the synchronization information needed to play back the various streams together.
Examples of containers: WAV (RIFF file format) is a simple audio container while AVI (the standard Microsoft Windows container), ASF (standard container for Microsoft WMA and WMV), MOV (standard QuickTime container)... are flexible (more advanced) containers that can hold many types of audio and video, as well as other media.
• Specialized codecs - what's the difference between Speech and Audio codecs?
SPEECH CODECS are designed to deal with the characteristics of voice, while AUDIO CODECS are developed for music. The difference between speech and audio codecs is that speech codecs look for speech patterns in order to compress the data further.
Codecs may also be able to transcode from one digital format to another; for example, from PCM audio to MP3 audio.
• Some popular codecs
Below were listed - by name and purpose - some of the most popular audio/speech and video codecs.
- AAC: music with digital rights (DRM)
- ACELP.live: music (VoiceAge)
- AIFF: music (Macintosh)
- AU: music (Sun)
- MP3: music (Fraunhofer IIS)
- Ogg Vorbis: music (open source standard)
- RA, RAM: music (RealNetworks streaming)
- WMA: music (Microsoft)
- µ-Law PCM: telephone circuit (U.S.)
- ACELP.net: general speech (VoiceAge)
- ACELP.wide: high quality (VoiceAge)
- A-Law PCM: telephone circuit (Europe)
- AMR-NB: GSM, 3GPP (ETSI narrowband)
- AMR-WB: GSM, 3GPP (ETSI wideband)
- DV Audio: MiniDV, audio
- G.711: audio/videoconferencing (ITU)
- G.722: audio/videoconferencing (ITU)
- G.723.1: VoIP, audio/videoconferencing (ITU)
- G.728: audio/videoconferencing (ITU)
- G.729: audio/videoconferencing (ITU)
- GSM 06.10: GSM, cellphone (unknown)
- AVI: movies (Microsoft)
- Cinepak: movies (SuperMac Technologies)
- H.261: videoconferencing (ITU)
- H.263: videoconferencing (ITU)
- H.264: videoconferencing (ITU)
- Indeo: movies (Intel)
- MPEG-1: movies (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
- MPEG-2: movies (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
- MPEG-4: movies (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
- RM, RV: movies and streaming (RealNetworks)
- Sorenson: movies (Sorenson Media)
- WMV: movies and streaming (Microsoft)
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Non-tech ways to improve your Net speed
- Ground heaters, halogen lamps and vacuum cleaners are power hungry, and the magnetic fields they generate play a role in the alternation of the signal. Don't place your modem or telephone wires near such appliances, unless you want to see a connection drop.
- Keep telephone wires away from power lines.
- It's recommended not to use a telephone extension cable; most of the time it distorts the signal and cuts down on connection speed.
- Make sure the lead from your modem to the phone socket is as short as possible.
- Don't have more than 3 ADSL filters at home.
- If possible, don't overlay the telephone socket. Each additional phone or appliance you plug in affects the signal.
- Make sure the wires aren't defective. You might be surprised by how easily they wear out.
- The modems/wireless routers supplied by ISPs are frequently horrible. Use your own modem/router if possible
For dial-up users:
- Make sure your phone line doesn't have restricted access (read: is barred from making nation-wide calls).
- Upgrade to a USB modem.
- Make sure the wires aren't defective, on the PC or modem or phone slot end.
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I know one codec for all in one purpose! The Storm Codec....
Thanks 4 the information!
was searching for this...
a well compiled info...
thanks for sharing along with pictures....
subscribed & repped also....
Last edited by mamu.zi; 20-04-2008 at 12:43 PM. Reason: missed out
- Check the DirectX version installed on your PC
- Fix common DirectX errors
- Download the latest version as a single installation file
If you have an older version of DirectX and a program needs a newer release, you will often see errors like:Understanding DirectX
DirectX has many uses in Windows. It allows developers to standardise certain video display and audio files - this makes them easier to run on different types of PCs.
DirectX is supposed to be backward compatible. So, if a game was written for DirectX 8, it should run if you have DirectX 9 installed on your PC. However, a game written specifically for DirectX 9 will generally not run on DirectX 8 or earlier. DirectX also has smaller incremental releases such as DirectX 9.0c (which has small but important differences compared to versions 9.0, 9.0a or 9.0b). A program written for DirectX 9.0c will generally not work with with versions such as 9.0a. That small letter at the end is important.
- Unable to find file d3d8.dll, ddraw.dll or d3d9.dll
- Cannot intialize dinput9.dll
- This application has failed to start because d3d9.dll was not found. Re-installing the application may fix this problem.
- dplay.dll has performed an illegal operation
- Fatal Exception error in dplayx.dll
- Access violation error in DirectX file D3D8.DLL
- A required .DLL File, D3D9.DLL, was not found
- Black/empty screen display
- Looping audio, pulsing sound or no sound at all
To fix most of these problems, all you need to do is make sure that you have downloaded the latest version on your system.
How do you check which version of DirectX is on your system: click the Start menu, then choose Run. In the box type dxdiag and press Enter on your keyboard. A new Window will appear and your version of DirectX will be listed at the bottom.
If you have an earlier version of DirectX installed on your system and install the latest version, you will see little difference in available space on your hard drive following the installation. However, DirectX 9 will overwrite any earlier versions and you cannot 'officially' remove it. There are many third-party utilities that may perform this task - this can help if your installation was corrupted. Search Google for 'DirectX Uninstaller'.
One annoying part of the DirectX active download available from Microsoft's site is that you can't save the files you downloaded. If you want to install the DirectX package on another PC, you'll have to download it each time. One solution is to get the 'redist' version - all files are downloaded in one package (rather than an active download).
Operating system notes: you can't update DirectX on Windows NT. The latest version available for Windows 98 or Me is DirectX 8.1. All other releases of Windows should use the DirectX 9 update listed above.
Last edited by hotspicyhot; 25-04-2008 at 07:03 PM.
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tfs the upzz....!!!!
Is your broadband connection really as fast as promised?
You might have signed up for the fastest connection your ISP has to offer. But how fast really is your connection? I came across some shocking statistics from online speed tests in an e-zine article, according to which broadband speed is frequently much lower than advertised:
when bandwidth is advertised at up to 8MB, for example, the actual speed received can be as low as 2.2MB, regardless of your distance from an exchange. One user who lived close to an exchange received just 9 Mbps of the advertised 16 Mbps. The lowest speed recorded in these speed tests was a meagre 0.09Mbps, which isn't much faster than dial-up.
Regardless of dial-up or broadband, how do you find out your true internet speed? There are many sites that test your internet connection for speed (the process generally involves passing data 19 times). SpeedTest is the one that pops out in a Google search, and is no doubt the most referenced. The one that's my favorite is, however, hard to dig up online: it's the Intel broadband connection Test.
Reasons I prefer the Intel test over SpeedTest: it measures speed in Mbps, whereas the latter delivers results in Kbps. So if you're using broadband, Mbps is the way to go. Plus, Intel's test is just hit and run: it's a one-click process (you don't even have to point out the server location as in SpeedTest), and (most importantly) you can compare how fast your connection is to other kinds of connections. Note: both tests require Adobe Flash Player.
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where can i check teh name of Sound card if it's driver is not installed???
you can openup the cpu and chk the sound card name.....series and find the drivers online.....
if he has motherboard cd then he will not ask u ........i think he lost it ...
repz added spicy